Vera, Ug Before you read Chapter 21, flip through the chapter and choose a work of art that you would hang in your house. Explain why you chose that piece.

Vera, Ug Before you read Chapter 21, flip through the chapter and choose a work of art that you would hang in your house. Explain why you chose that piece.

You are required to create a thread in response to the provided prompt. Each thread must be 250–300 words in length and demonstrate course-related knowledge. Chapter 21

Art History Volume 2

Stokstad & Cothren

Pearson

Italy in the Early Sixteenth
Century: The High Renaissance
•  “High” constitutes an art-historical judgment in

that this period set the standards for future
movements.

•  This period fused the real and the ideal.
•  Oil painting became the preferred medium, and

because commissions increased from private
sources, artists no longer depended on the
patronage of the Church.

•  The humanist notion of arts as intellectual
influenced and elevated artists.

Three Great Artists of the Early
Sixteenth Century

•  Leonardo, Michelangelo, and Raphael
all worked their early careers in
Florence.

•  Leonardo da Vinci
! The Virgin of the Rocks shows four

figures with strong chiaroscuro that
enhances their modeling.
• It is painted in the sfumato technique,
creating a smoky effect.

Leonardo da Vinci THE VIRGIN OF THE ROCKS
c. 1485. Oil on wood panel (now transferred to canvas), 6’6″ × 4′ (1.9 × 1.2 m).

Musée du Louvre, Paris. [Fig. 21-02]

Three Great Artists of the Early
Sixteenth Century

•  Leonardo da Vinci
! The Last Supper, painted in the

refectory of Stanta Maria delle Grazie,
was a defining work of Renaissance art.
• Leonardo arranged the disciples in four
groups of three as they flank the stable,
pyramidal form of Jesus in the middle.
• The scene is set in stage-like recession,
with the orthogonals converging at the
head of Jesus.

Leonardo da Vinci THE LAST SUPPER
Refectory of the monastery of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan, Italy. 1495-1498.

Tempera and oil on plaster, 15’2″ × 28’10” (4.6 × 8.8 m). [Fig. 21-04]

REFECTORY OF THE MONASTERY OF SANTA MARIA DELLE GRAZIE, SHOWING
LEONARDO’S LAST SUPPER

Milan, Italy. [Fig. 21-05]

Three Great Artists of the Early
Sixteenth Century

•  The Mona Lisa is, perhaps, his most
famous work, painted about 1503–
1506.
! The distant, hazy mountains give the

subject, Lisa Gherardini del Giocondo, a
mysterious quality.
• Her direct stare and “enigmatic” smile
add to the effect.

Leonardo da Vinci MONA LISA
c. 1503-1506. Oil on wood panel, 30-1/4″ × 21″ (77 × 53 cm).

Musée du Louvre, Paris. (INV. 779) [Fig. 21-1]

Three Great Artist of the Early
Sixteenth Century

•  Raphael
! The Small Cowper Madonna typifies the

artist’s popular paintings of the Virgin
and Child.
• A pyramidal composition and clinging
draperies show the influence of da Vinci.

Raphael THE SMALL COWPER MADONNA
c. 1505. Oil on wood panel, 23-3/8″ × 17-3/8″ (59.5 × 44.1 cm).

National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC. Widener Collection (1942.9.57) [Fig. 21-06]

Three Great Artist of the Early
Sixteenth Century

•  Raphael
! Raphael’s most influential work in the

papal rooms was the School of Athens in
the Stanza della Segnatura.
• Harmoniously arranged forms and
rational space complement the room in
which it was painted.
• Philosophical figures, while idealized,
have dynamically foreshortened
contrapposto poses.

A CLOSER LOOK: The School of Athens
by Raphael, fresco in the Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican, Rome.

c. 1510-1511. 19′ × 27′ (5.79 × 8.24 m).

Three Great Artist of the Early
Sixteenth Century

•  Michelangelo’s Early Work
! An example is the marble Pietà.
• The subject of the Virgin supporting and
mourning the dead Jesus was rare in
Italian art of the time.
• Size disparity between the large Virgin
and Jesus is forgotten when viewing the
smooth modeling of deftly carved forms.

Michelangelo PIETÀ
c. 1500. Marble, height 5’8-1/2″ (1.74 m).

St. Peter’s, Vatican, Rome. [Fig. 21-14]

Three Great Artists of the Early
Sixteenth Century

•  The Sistine Chapel
! The Sistine Chapel ceiling was ordered

by Pope Julius II, who wanted the
theme to be the Twelve Apostles, which
Michelangelo found too limiting.
• Shallow bands of painted stone molding
divide the vault into nine compartments
showing scenes from Genesis.

! The iconic Creation of Adam shows God
sparking Adam with life.

INTERIOR, SISTINE CHAPEL
Vatican, Rome. Built 1475-1481; ceiling painted 1508-1512; end wall, 1536-1541.

The ceiling measures 45′ × 128′ (13.75 × 39 m). [Fig. 21-16]

Michelangelo SISTINE CHAPEL CEILING WITH DIAGRAM IDENTIFYING SCENES
1508-1512. Fresco. [Fig. 21-17]

Venice and the Veneto

•  Titian
! The Pesaro Madonna, commissioned for

an altar, shows grandeur in its massive
columns and marble staircase.
• Colors were built up in layers of red,
white, black, and yellow.
• Intersecting diagonals in the composition
reach from Jacopo Pesaro to the off-
center Virgin.

Titian PESARO MADONNA
1519-1526. Oil on canvas, 16′ × 8’10” (4.9 × 2.7 m).

Side-aisle altarpiece, Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, Venice. [Fig. 21-28]

Mannerism

•  This style developed into an anti-
Classical movement in which
artificiality, grace, and elegance took
priority over lifelike references.

•  Patrons favored esoteric subjects.
•  Painters and sculptors quoted other

works with self-conscious playfulness.
•  Architects used Classical orders in

unconventional ways.

Painting

•  This movement was characterized by
artificiality, grace, and elegance over
ordered balance.
! Artists distorted conventions and

created contrived, enigmatic forms.
•  Carucci’s Deposition shows an

ambiguous composition with a dreamy
atmosphere and odd poses.
! Jarring colors are juxtaposed.

Painting

•  Painters created contrived compositions
and irrational spatial environments, full
of quoted references to predecessors’
works.

•  Pontormo
! Jacopo Carucci da Pontormo created

frescoes for the Capponi Chapel.
! Deposition’s ambiguous composition

gives a visionary feeling to the piece.

Painting

•  Pontormo
! Deposition’s ambiguous composition

gives a visionary feeling to the piece.
• Some figures press into the viewer’s
space while others stand on tiptoe,
creating odd poses.
• The most striking oddity of this altarpiece
is the choice of colors with bizarre
juxtapositions.

Pontormo DEPOSITION
Altarpiece in Capponi Chapel, church of Santa Felicità, Florence. 1525-1528.

Oil and tempera on wood panel, 10’3″ × 6’4″ (3.1 × 1.9 m). [Fig. 21-38]

Painting

•  Parmigianino
! Left unfinished at the time of the artist’s

early death is the Madonna of the Long
Neck.

! Mary’s proportions are unnatural
! The well-known scene is presented in a

manner intended to intrigue viewers.

Parmigianino MADONNA OF THE LONG NECK
1534-1540. Oil on wood panel, 7’1″ × 4’4″ (2.16 × 1.32 m).

Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. [Fig. 21-39]

Painting

•  Lavinia Fontana
! Lavinia Fontana (1552–1614) found a

successful career in Bologna that would
later boast her to position of papal court
painter in 1603.

! Noli Me Tangere shows Christ revealing
himself to Mary Magdalen following his
resurrection.
• Its diagonal plunge into depth is
characteristic of the Mannerist style.

Lavinia Fontana NOLI ME TANGERE
1581. Oil on canvas, 47-3/8″ × 36-5/8″ (120.3 × 93 cm).

Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. [Fig. 21-43]

Art and Architecture in Rome and
the Vatican

•  Paul III commissioned Michelangelo for
the Sistine Chapel on Capitoline Hill.

•  Michelangelo’s Late Work
! The Last Judgment scene abandoned

medieval conception and showed a
swarm of resurrected humans pushing
upward.

Michelangelo LAST JUDGMENT, SISTINE CHAPEL
1536-1541.

Fresco, 48′ × 44′ (14.6 × 13.4 m). [Fig. 21-46]

Art and Architecture in Rome and
the Vatican

•  Michelangelo’s Late Work
! The completion of St. Peter’s Basilica

also fell to Michelangelo.
• He undid parts of Sangallo’s design in
order to strengthen Bramante’s central
plan.
• Three surviving hemicycles show his
work, and the current dome retains his
basic design.

Michelangelo ST. PETER’S BASILICA, VATICAN
c. 1546-1564; dome completed 1590 by Giacomo della Porta; lantern 1590-1593.

View from the west. [Fig. 21-47]

Oil Painting

•  Tintoretto
! This artist sought to combine Titian’s

coloring with the drawing of
Michelangelo.

! His The Last Supper differs from da
Vinci’s.
• The scene is viewed from a corner and
features two light sources.

! The speed of his work was especially
noted.

Tintoretto THE LAST SUPPER
Church of San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice. 1592-1594.

Oil on canvas, 12′ × 18’8″ (3.7 × 5.7 m). [Fig. 21-32]

Art and Its Contexts: Veronese Is
Called Before the Inquisition

•  Veronese shocked patrons with his
painting later called Feast in the House
of Levi.
! The scene contained pageantry, scruffy

dogs, overall offending viewers and
removing it from a typical Last Supper
scene.

•  The Inquisition ordered an explanation
and subsequent renaming.

Veronese FEAST IN THE HOUSE OF LEVI
From the refectory of the monastery of SS. Giovanni e Paolo, Venice. 1573.

Oil on canvas, 18’3″ × 42′ (5.56 × 12.8 m).
Galleria dell’Accademia, Venice. [Fig. 21-31]

Architecture: Palladio

•  Andrea Palladio dominated architecture
with characteristics of harmonious
symmetry and controlled
ornamentation.

•  He became involved in publishing books
on architecture that would become
tenets for future architects.
! Four Books of Architecture was a staple

in the libraries of educated people.

Architecture: Palladio

•  San Giorgio Maggiore
! This monastery church featured a

variation on the traditional Renaissance
façade for a basilica.

! The interior includes finely balanced
geometry, evidenced by engaged
columns and short pilasters echoing the
two levels of orders on the façade.

Palladio CHURCH OF SAN GIORGIO MAGGIORE, VENICE
Plan 1565; construction 1565-1580; façade 1597-1610; campanile 1791.
Finished by Vincenzo Scamozzi following Palladio’s design. [Fig. 21-33]

NAVE, CHURCH OF SAN GIORGIO MAGGIORE, VENICE
Begun 1566. [Fig. 21-34]

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