Unit IV Discussion Board Leadership IV. 1. As organizational leadership and structure are inevitably changing and leaders possess different styles for lea

Unit IV Discussion Board Leadership IV. 1. As organizational leadership and structure are inevitably changing and leaders possess different styles for leading others, what do you feel are the most common techniques leaders tend to use to motivate workers to perform more efficiently?

2. On a professional level, what do you think motivates you the most, and why?

3. Please use class material to support your answer. BBA 3651, Leadership 1

Course Learning Outcomes for Unit IV

Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:

1. Compare various leadership styles.
1.1 Describe various leadership motivational techniques that could improve employee work

performance and retention.

4. Illustrate the role of ethics in guiding leadership behavior and motivations.
4.1 Explain how ethics impacts goal setting to promote a positive organizational behavior.

Course/Unit
Learning Outcomes

Learning Activity

1.1

Unit Lesson
All required readings
Unit IV Videos
Unit IV Essay

4.1

Unit Lesson
All required readings
Unit IV Videos
Unit IV Essay

Reading Assignment

In order to access the following resources, click the links below.

Click here to access the Unit IV Motivational Techniques video.
Click here to access the transcript for the Unit IV Motivational Techniques video.

Armache, J. (2012). Effect of compensation and other motivational techniques on organizational productivity.

Franklin Business & Law Journal, 2012(1), 88–96.
https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direc
t=true&db=bsu&AN=75144022&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Business2Learn (Producer). (2011). Retaining and motivating employees (Segment 35 of 40) [Video]. In

Starting a garden center: The startup experience. Films on Demand.
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ylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=47848&loid=139947

The transcript for this video can be found by clicking the “Transcript” tab to the right of the video in the Films
on Demand database.

Grant, A. M. (2012). Leading with meaning: Beneficiary contact, prosocial impact, and the performance

effects of transformational leadership. Academy of Management Journal, 55(2), 458–476.
https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direc
t=true&db=bsu&AN=74715458&site=ehost-live&scope=site

UNIT IV STUDY GUIDE

Our Intentions Affect Our Motivations—
Which Affects Our Behavior

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BBA 3651, Leadership 2

UNIT x STUDY GUIDE

Title

Parke, M. R., Weinhardt, J. M., Brodsky, A., Tangirala, S., & DeVoe, S. E. (2018). When daily planning
improves employee performance: The importance of planning type, engagement, and interruptions.
Journal of Applied Psychology, 103(3), 300–312.
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t=true&db=pdh&AN=2017-52058-001&site=ehost-live&scope=site

San Mateo County Community College District (Producer). (2004). Exercise: Evaluating goals (Segment 5 of

9) [Video]. In Goal setting and action planning. Films on Demand.
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ylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=34514&loid=22442

The transcript for this video can be found by clicking the “Transcript” tab to the right of the video in the Films
on Demand database.

TeleTime (Producer). (2013). Motivating employees: Inc. magazine’s complete series on starting and growing

a business [Video]. Films on Demand.
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ylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=118035

The transcript for this video can be found by clicking the “Transcript” tab to the right of the video in the Films
on Demand database.

Video Education America (Producer). (2009). Goal setting and motivation (Segment 4 of 6) [Video]. In

Evaluating a training program. Films on Demand.
https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=http://fod.infobase.com/PortalPla
ylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=41129&loid=90268

The transcript for this video can be found by clicking the “Transcript” tab to the right of the video in the Films
on Demand database.

Unit Lesson

Motivational Techniques

Previously, we discussed how leaders are challenged with communicating difficult decisions and what they
must do to entice workers to speak up; make intelligent decisions; and set realistic, attainable goals. In this
unit, we will reflect on the motivational techniques leaders can utilize to not only incite workers to perform
better but also to enhance organizational retention.

Click here to access the Unit IV Motivational Techniques video.

Click here to access the transcript for the Unit IV Motivational
Techniques video.

Charismatic and transformational leaders will often motivate
workers by (a) engaging in inspirational aspects of the
organization’s vision, (b) focusing on collective identities, (c)
expressing optimism, and (d) building on the core values of
the business (Grant, 2012). Some leaders may opt to change
the actual role of a follower as an attempt to motivate him or
her to try something new. For the most part, protecting and
promoting the culture and security of one’s well-being is of
great value for most people in regards to motivation to
perform at a higher level. Another method of motivation is to
personalize interactions by offering ample mentoring,
coaching, and understanding on an individualized level.

Skills of a leader
(Szczybylo, 2018)

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https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=http://fod.infobase.com/PortalPlaylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=34514&loid=22442

https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=http://fod.infobase.com/PortalPlaylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=34514&loid=22442

https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=http://fod.infobase.com/PortalPlaylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=118035

https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=http://fod.infobase.com/PortalPlaylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=118035

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BBA 3651, Leadership 3

UNIT x STUDY GUIDE

Title

Motivation is a desire that drives workers to achieve certain goals or targets. Society and social norms are
considered explicit means of motivations, yet implicit motives are also, though subconsciously, related to
behavior. Many leaders will try to motivate employees simply by giving them more responsibility, new
challenges, and praise or recognition. In most businesses, it is easy to recognize three different types of
needs that motivate people to do more: the need for achievement, the need for power, and the need for
affiliation (Armache, 2012). For instance, if a worker has a strong need for power, he or she might portray a
strong work ethic but could be limited in flexibility and social skills. Each different type of need can affect
decisions leaders make in regards to team development and organizational goal setting. Regardless of the
type of need a worker displays, leaders must be cognizant of how ethics plays a role in the way people will
receive information and behave as a result.

Scenario

Susan Meyers currently works as a purchasing manager for a small manufacturing company, and she has
been tasked with choosing a vendor for a $100,000 contract relating to a production line part. Typically, the
process would entail the company asking vendors for proposals and then choosing the best option at the
lowest cost; however, in this instance, Susan’s boss has requested that she select one vendor from a choice
of only two. Susan discovers that one of the vendors is owned by a spouse of a board member. The other
vendor is owned by a local politician who is highly inluential in the community. Being that both vendors have
quoted seemingly competitive rates, and there were no other rates solicited, Susan cannot determine if any
other company could offer a better rate. Being that there appears to be a vested interest in the shortlist
provided, she is unsure if choosing a vendor in this type of manner would result in a violation of established
organizational guidelines.

On one hand, if Susan follows the instructions of her boss, she will earn the good will of the selected party,
yet if she goes against her boss’s wishes, she will likely face a reprimand from senior management. She is
mostly concerned as to whether her decision will result in an undesirable or unethical precedent. If you were
Susan, what decision would you make? Would it be easier to make a decision if you were not worried about
losing your job or being financially burdened as a consequence to your choice of action?

Internal Versus External Motivations

Making ethical decisions as a leader or a subordinate is not always easy. Individuals are motivated by various
internal and external factors. Internal motivations are what a worker internally puts into a job including hard
work and commitment while the output factors include rewards and pay (Armache, 2012). Providing a
monetary reward for motivation is one of the most common means, as it relates to one’s needs, emotions,
and self concept. Financial rewards are generally based on member status, seniority, job level, or

Job input versus output

(Armache, 2012)

BBA 3651, Leadership 4

UNIT x STUDY GUIDE

Title

competencies. Typically, motivation is the ultimate drive that stimulates workers to do their best to produce
outstanding work.

Motivational Theories

Even though there are many motivational theories regarding employee needs, one of the most common is
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs that is fundamentally focused on motivation and personality. Abraham Maslow
postulated that people have primary needs such as food, shelter, sex, and safety. These needs are thought to
be of great importance than the desire for one to meet higher order needs such as self-esteem and self-
actualization (Shriberg & Shriberg, 2011). Have you ever rushed to a meeting only to discover that your
stomach talked more than you did? If certain basic needs are not met, people will tend to be distracted or
unmotivated to perform at their best. Human needs can actually overlap, and people can behave in a way that
satisfies more than one need at a time. Consequently, if higher-order needs are not met, individuals then
could regress and opt to satisfy lower-order needs. These different types of needs are focused on growth,
relatedness, and existence (Shriberg & Shriberg, 2011).

Often, people believe in the notion that behavior results from consequences. Reinforcement theory is based
on the role of positive and negative reinforcement. You might have heard of the story regarding classical
conditioning where dogs were trained to salivate at the sound of a bell. The dogs learned over time that when
a bell rang, food would quickly appear. The same principle can apply to humans being motivated to perform a
task or operate a certain way if they will experience desirable outcomes. On the other hand, if negative
consequences follow a certain action or performance, most individuals will choose to refrain from exhibiting a
behavior that could result in some form of negative reinforcement.

Scenario

Jim is listening to soft music and feels relaxed. Suddenly, his
wife and son arrive from work and school and start making
noises in the kitchen—pots and pans keep banging, his
wife’s phone keeps ringing, and the microwave continues to
make a beeping sound. His son continuously asks him
questions. How do you think Jim will react? What kind of
mood is he in now?

Most likely, he is no longer motivated to relax. If the sound of
soft music creates a sense of peace for Jim, yet distractions
and noise prohibit that expectation, it is understandable if the
situation resulted in an undesired outcome. Now, it is up to
Jim to make another decision in order to deal with the
current mood change, the next behavioral action, and his
attitude toward the arrival of his wife and the change of his

agenda. Too often in work settings, things do not go as planned, and workers are expected to demonstrate
flexibility, discipline, and professionalism regardless of the intended outcome.

Motivating Factors

Frederick Herzberg believes that certain factors tend to be related to job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. He
contends that a lack of job security, uncomfortable working conditions, and a decrease in interpersonal
relationships can lead to job dissatisfaction (Shriberg & Shriberg, 2011). Therefore, people must be wise in
how they communicate with others, complete tasks in a timely manner, and show respect in all situations.
Leaders who value a positive working environment will spend quality time strengthening employee
relationships and promoting connectivity through various team projects.

Motivational theorist David McClelland feels people are motivated by power, achievement, and affiliation.
Those who are motivated by power generally act vigorously and are determined to use their power to
influence others’ thinking and behavior. Both leaders and followers can exert themselves in a sense of power
or drive to get tasks accomplished. These types of people love to achieve goals and face new challenges.

A child distracting his father
(Imageegami, 2010)

BBA 3651, Leadership 5

UNIT x STUDY GUIDE

Title

The need for affiliation relates to the desire to belong to an establishment or group, to love and receive
compassion, and to genuinely connect with others.

Equity theory and expectancy theory are also related to motivation and performances (Shriberg & Shriberg,
2011). For example, people who compare themselves and their attitudes to others will ideally evaluate their
performances in comparison to others. They focus on the outcomes associated with their inputs in relation to
others. However, expectancy theory is solely based on an individual’s perception that diligent effort will
improve performances. Ultimately, quality leadership styles through communication and motivational
techniques are utilized as a means to foster team synergy, employee retention, and higher-level work
performances (Shriberg & Shriberg, 2011).

References

Armache, J. (2012). Effect of compensation and other motivational techniques on organizational productivity.

Franklin Business & Law Journal, 2012(1), 88–96.
https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direc
t=true&db=bsu&AN=75144022&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Grant, A. M. (2012). Leading with meaning: Beneficiary contact, prosocial impact, and the performance

effects of transformational leadership. Academy of Management Journal, 55(2), 458–476.
https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direc
t=true&db=bsu&AN=74715458&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Imageegami. (2010). Working from home distractions. Distraction, businessmen (ID 21584187) [Photograph].

Dreamstime. https://www.dreamstime.com/royalty-free-stock-photography-working-home-distractions-
image21584187

Shriberg, D., & Shriberg, A. (2011). Practicing leadership: Principles and applications (4th ed.). Wiley.

Szczybylo. (2018). Conceptual hand writing showing empower engage enable enhance (ID 121978305)

[Photograph]. Dreamstime. https://www.dreamstime.com/conceptual-hand-writing-showing-empower-
engage-enable-enhance-business-photo-showcasing-empowerment-leadership-motivation-engagem-
image121978305

Learning Activities (Nongraded)

Nongraded Learning Activities are provided to aid students in their course of study. You do not have to submit
them. If you have questions, contact your instructor for further guidance and information.

For this nongraded learning opportunity, consider a professional or personal project you were expected to
complete within a limited timeframe, and answer the following questions.

A vision board is a poster that includes images, quotes, and text that influence or inspire you. Consider
creating a vision board of your personal motivations. Start by reflecting on what drives you to try your hardest
each day. Is it your own need for personal achievement, or do you want to be a good example for your
family?

You can create a physical vision board and hang it, or you can create an online version (Pinterest, for
example).

Course Learning Outcomes for Unit IV
Reading Assignment
Unit Lesson
Learning Activities (Nongraded)

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