SWK207-HUMAN BEHAVIOR & SOCIAL ENVIRO II Social Science homework help

Lesson 5 Discussion

In explaining poverty in the United States, which view, individualist or structural, makes more sense to you? Why? Why do you think the majority of Americans assume poor people lack the motivation to work? Original post should be a minimum of 1 page (250 words).

Lesson 5 Assignment

Write a full one-page that describes important dimensions of racial and ethnic inequality in the United States. APA format required. Remember to include a reference page and cite your sources. 

Lesson 6 Discussion

Discuss benefits/programs that the elderly population receives in the United States. Compare your answers to examples that were provided in your textbook of The Netherlands and Sweden (or post an example from a different country if you wish). Do you believe the United States government is doing what they need to do for elderly citizens? Do you think they do too much already or not enough? If you could speak to an important member in policymaking on this issue, what would your suggestions be? The original post should be a minimum of 1 page (250 words).

Human Behavior and the Social Environment II

Human Behavior and the
Social Environment II

WHITNEY PAYNE

U N I V E R S I T Y O F A R K A N S A S L I B R A R I E S

F AY E T T E V I L L E , A R

Human Behavior and the Social Environment II by Whitney Payne is licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License,
except where otherwise noted.

Content in his book is adapted was from

• Kennedy, Vera. (2018). Beyond race: cultural influences on

human social life. This work is licensed under a Creative

Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0

International License

• “Beyond Race: Cultural Influences on Human Social Life” by

Vera Kennedy under the license CC BY-NC-SA 4.0.

• Social Problems by University of Minnesota is licensed under

a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike

4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

• Introduction to Women, Gender, Sexuality Studies by Miliann

Kang, Donovan Lessard, Laura Heston, Sonny Nordmarken is

licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0

International License,

• Principles of Social Psychology by University of Minnesota

under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-

ShareAlike 4.0 International License,

• McAdams, D. P. (2019). Self and identity. In R. Biswas-Diener &

E. Diener (Eds), Noba textbook series: Psychology. Champaign,

IL: DEF publishers. Retrieved from http://noba.to/3gsuardw.

Self and Identity by Dan P. McAdams is licensed under

a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike

4.0 International License.

• Immigrant and Refugee Families, 2nd Ed. by Jaime Ballard,

Elizabeth Wieling, Catherine Solheim, and Lekie Dwanyen is

licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-

NonCommercial 4.0 International License, except where

otherwise noted.

Contents

Introduction 1

Attributions 4

Part I. Traditional Paradigms & Dominant

Perspectives on Individuals

Chapter 1: Self and Identity

1.1 Introduction 14

1.2 The Social Actor 15

1.3 The Motivated Agent 19

1.4 The Autobiographical Author 21

1.5 End-of-Chapter Summary 26

1.6 Outside Resources 27

1.7 Discussion Questions 27

13

Chapter 2: Culture and Meaning

2.1 Introduction 33

2.2 Link between Culture and Society 34

2.3 Defining Culture 35

2.4 Cultural Sociology 39

2.5 Theoretical Perspectives on Culture 42

33

Chapter 3: Culture as a Social Construct

3.1 Social Production of Culture 53

3.2 Collective Culture 56

3.3 Cultural Change 69

53

Chapter 4: Cultural Power

4.1 Cultural Hierarchies 72

4.2 Cultural Hegemony 79

4.3 Prejudice and Discrimination 82

72

Chapter 5: Cultural Identity

5.1 Identity Formation 90

5.2 Sex and Gender 94

5.3 Sexuality and Sexual Orientation 99

5.4 Body and Mind 103

5.5 Race and Ethnicity 108

5.6 Religion and Belief Systems 114

5.7 Identity Today 120

90

Chapter 6: The Multicultural World

6.1 Globalization and Identity 133

6.2 Building Cultural Intelligence 138

133

Part II. Alternative Perspectives on Individuals

Chapter 7: Individual and Cultural Differences in

Person Perception

7.1 Introduction 151

7.2 Perceiver Characteristics 152

7.3 Cultural Differences in Person Perception 156

7.4 Attribution Styles and Mental Health 160

7.5 End-of-Chapter Summary 164

151

Chapter 8: Poverty

8.1 Introduction 170

8.2 The Measurement & Extent of Poverty 174

8.3 Who the Poor Are: Social Patterns of Poverty 181

8.4 Explaining Poverty 195

8.5 The Consequences of Poverty 210

8.6 Global Poverty 224

8.7 Reducing Poverty 246

8.8 End-of-Chapter Summary 256

170

Chapter 9: People of Color, White Identity, &

Women

9.1 Introduction to Prejudice, Discrimination, and

Stereotyping

260

9.2 Dimension of Racial and Ethnic Equality 276

9.3 Feminism and Sexism 286

9.4 Reducing Gender Inequality 292

9.5 The Benefits and Costs of Being Male 296

9.6 Masculinities 300

260

Chapter 10: Aging and Ableness

10.1 Aging Social Problems in the News 303

10.2 Age Cohorts 304

10.3 The Concept & Experience of Aging 307

10.4 Perspectives on Aging 309

10.5 Life Expectancy & the Graying of Society 313

10. 6 Biological & Psychological Aspects of Aging 317

10.7 Children and Our Future 319

10.8 Applying Social Research 321

10.9 Problems Facing Older Americans 324

10.10 Lessons from Other Societies 332

10.11 People Making a Difference 340

10.12 Reducing Ageism & Helping Older Americans 344

10.13 End-of-Chapter Summary 348

302

Chapter 11: Sexual Orientation, Sexuality, &

Pornography

11.1 What is Sex, Gender, Sexuality, & Sexual

Orientation?

351

11.2 Sexual Orientation and Inequality 356

11.3 Understanding Sexual Orientation 359

11.4 Public Attitudes About Sexual Orientation 377

11.5 Inequality Based on Sexual Orientation 392

11.6 Improving the Lives of the LGBT Community 419

11.7 Sexual Orientation & Inequality Summary 422

11.8 Pornography 425

351

Part III. Perspectives on Families

Chapter 12: The Family

12.1 Introduction 439

12.2 What is Family? 440

12.3 How Families Develop 444

12.4 Dating, Courtship, and Cohabitation 447

12.5 Family Issues and Considerations 456

12.6 Happy Healthy Families 461

12.7 Additional Resources 462

439

Chapter 13: Relationships & Well-Being

13.1 Introduction 468

13.2 The Importance of Relationships 469

13.3 The Question of Measurement 470

13.4 Presence and Quality of Relationships and

Well-Being

474

13.5 Types of Relationships 479

13.6 Fact or Myth: Are Social Relationships the

Secret to Happiness?

483

13.7 Additional Resources 485

468

Chapter 14: Childhood Experiences & Epigenetics

14.1 Early childhood experience 491

14.2 Parental investment and programming of stress

responses in the offspring

492

14.3 Child nutrition and the epigenome 495

491

Part IV. Perspectives on Groups

Chapter 15: Working Groups: Performance &

Decision Making

15.1 Introduction 505

15.2 Understanding Social Groups 510

15.3 Group Process: the Pluses & Minuses of

Working Together

521

15.4 Improving Group Performance 573

15.5 Thinking Like A Social Psychologist About

Social Groups

590

15.6 End-of-Chapter Summary 592

503

Chapter 16: The Psychology of Groups

16.1 Introduction to the Psychology of Groups 597

16.2 The Psychological Significance of Groups 599

16.3 Motivation and Performance 604

16.4 Making Decisions in Groups 613

16.5 You and Your Groups 619

16.6 Outside Resources 620

16.7 References 622

596

Part V. Stages of Group Development & Group

Think

Chapter 17: Groupthink

17.1 Overview of Groupthink 632

17.2 Additional Resources 634

631

Part VI. Perspectives on Organizations

Chapter 18: Industrial/Organizational Psychology

19.1 What is Industrial and Organizational (I/O)

Psychology?

640

19.2 What Does an I/O Psychologist Do? 644

19.3 Careers in I/O Psychology 647

19.4 History of I/O Psychology 649

19.5 Additional Resources 653

639

Chapter 19: Competition and Cooperation in Our

Social Worlds

19.1 Competition and Cooperation in Our Social

Worlds

657

19.2 Conflict, Cooperation, Morality, and Fairness 662

19.3 How the Social Situation Creates Conflict: The

Role of Social Dilemmas

684

19.4 Strategies for Producing Cooperation 704

19.5 Thinking Like a Social Psychologist About

Cooperation and Competition

721

19.6 End-of-Chapter Summary 722

657

Chapter 20: Group & Organizational Culture

20.1 Introduction 726

20.2 Group Dynamics 727

20.3 Organization 729

20.4 Symbolic Power 730

20.5 Organizational Culture 730

726

Part VII. Perspectives on Communities

Chapter 21: Geographic Region

21.1 Communities Based Upon Geographical Region 738

737

Chapter 22: Population & the Environment

22.1 Introduction 743

22.2 Sociological Perspectives on Population & the

Environment

744

22.3 Population 750

23.4 The Environment 785

22.5 Addressing Population Problems & Improving

the Environment

820

22.6 End-of-Chapter Summary 825

742

Chapter 23: Urban & Rural Problems

23.1 Introduction 829

23.2 A Brief History of Urbanization 831

23.3 Sociological Perspectives on Urbanization 843

23.4 Problems of Urban Life 853

23.5 Problems of Rural Life 880

23.6 Improving Urban & Rural Life 888

23.7 End-of-Chapter Summary 890

829

Part VIII. Communities & Police Relations

Chapter 24: The Criminal Justice System

24.1 Introduction 897

24.2 Police 898

24.3 Criminal Courts 901

24.4 The Problem of Prisons 903

24.5 Focus on the Death Penalty 907

897

Part IX. Global Perspectives & Theories

Chapter 25: Immigration & Immigrant Policy:

Barriers & Opportunities for Families

25.1 Introduction 918

25.2 Immigration Policy 921

25.3 Current Immigration Policy 929

25.4 Opportunities & Barriers for Immigrant

Families

935

25.5 Future Directions 944

25.6 End-of-Chapter Summary 946

27.7 Appendices 956

917

Chapter 26: From There to Here: The Journey of

Refugee Families to the United States

26.1 Introduction 965

26.2 Fleeing Persecution and Separation from

Family

966

26.3 Travel to Temporary Refuge 969

26.4 Family Admittance to the United States 971

26.5 Entering the United States 974

26.6 Future Directions in Policy and Refugee Family

Support

986

26.7 Conclusion 988

26.8 Appendix 995

964

Chapter 27: Human Rights

27.1 Introduction 999

27.2 What are Human Rights? 1001

27.3 The Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1004

27.4 The Status of Human Rights in the United

States

1006

27.5 Emerging Directions 1021

27.6 End-of-Chapter Summary 1023

998

Chapter 28: Economic Well-Being, Supports &

Barriers

28.1 Introduction 1031

28.2 Employment 1033

28.3 Access to Necessities 1040

28.4 Financial Problems 1052

28.5 Future Directions 1057

28.6 End-of-Chapter Summary 1059

1030

Chapter 29: Mental Health

29.1 Introduction 1070

29.2 Different Shared Experiences 1072

29.3 Mental Health Challenges 1075

29.4 Mental Health Treatments 1086

29.5 Emerging Directions 1092

29.6 End-of-Chapter Summary 1094

1070

Chapter 30: Intimate Partner Violence Among

Immigrants & Refugees

32.1 Introduction 1109

32.2 Defining IPV 1112

32.3 IPV Among Immigrants & Refugees 1115

32.4 Risk & Protective Factors 1116

32.5 Responses to IPV 1119

32.6 Barriers to Help Seeking 1123

32.7 Future Decisions 1134

32.8 Case Study 1135

32.9 End-of-Chapter Summary 1136

1108

Chapter 31: Substance Abuse

33.1 Introduction 1148

33.2 Substance Abuse Prevalence 1151

33.3 Risk Factors 1154

33.4 Family Influences on Substance Abuse 1159

33.5 Theoretical Frameworks 1160

33.6 Policy on Legal Consequences on Substance

Abuse

1165

33.7 Substance Abuse Prevention & Intervention 1166

33.8 End-of-Chapter Summary 1171

1148

Chapter 32: Resilience in Immigrant & Refugee

Families

34.1 Introduction 1185

34.2 Family Motivation: Value of Work & Education 1186

34.3 Family Connectedness & Identity 1194

34.4 Role of Resources in Achieving Aspirations 1202

34.5 Emerging Directions 1208

34.6 End-of-Chapter Summary 1210

1184

Chapter 33: Embracing a New Home:

Resettlement Research & the Family

35.1 Introduction 1222

35.2 Assimilation 1222

35.3 Family Theories: A New Direction for Research

with Resettled Populations

1235

35.4 Critical Theories 1241

35.5 Cultural Values to Consider in Resettlement

Research

1241

35.6 Future Directions 1245

35.7 End-of-Chapter 1246

1221

Part X. Additional Resources

Introduction

The Meaning Behind This Book

In the Fall of 2003, I started my undergraduate career at the

University of Alaska Anchorage. For as long as I could remember I

had wanted to be a veterinarian and had begun my freshman year

as a Pre-vet major. Before long, I came to the startling realization

that biology and chemistry were not a place of academic strength

for me and my hopes of making it through four more years of these

particular types of classes became daunting and perhaps unrealistic.

However, at this same time, I was enrolled in an Introduction to

Social Work and Social Welfare Policy course, and it had become a

respite from the periodic table of elements and algebraic algorithms

that were the cornerstone of my other classes that semester. Before

enrolling in that course, I had no idea that a profession such as

Social Work existed. I had spent most of my life interested in human

behavior and how the environment can influence the way that

people navigate their lives. I had also been enamored by social

justice movements and had started to really recognize how policy

decisions can have collateral consequences on individuals, groups,

and communities. Needless to say, the Introduction to Social Work

course changed the trajectory of my personal and professional life,

and I went on to earn my BSW as well as my MSW.

After I completed graduate school, I began working as a substance

abuse counselor within the prison system in Arkansas, and during

my time there it became even more clear to me how much

individuals are shaped by their environments. An overwhelming

majority of the clients that I worked with had been survivors of

trauma and had been at the mercy of generational cycles of poverty,

abuse, addiction, and criminal justice involvement. These were not

individuals that were making random, bad choices. These were

Introduction | 1

individuals who were facing extreme structural impediments in life

and who were doing the best that they could with the resources

and skills that they had at the time. And, just like that, I finally

understood how multidimensional the treatment needs of

individuals can be and how every person’s story and potential

success is based on our ability, as the clinician, to attend to and

acknowledge the complexity of their lives.

After several years of clinical practice, I made the unexpected

transition to academia and was given the opportunity to teach the

Human Behavior and the Social Environment course. After working

on the curriculum for two semesters, it became clear to me that

students wanted and desired a textbook that was free, easy to

access online, and contained information from a multitude of

disciplines. I was fortunate enough to learn about Open Educational

Resources at our institution and began working with the University

library system to compile several different chapters from several

different open and free textbooks. These materials will help

students and instructors alike explore human behavior and how

it is shaped and impacted by both traditional and non-traditional

paradigms. This text will also support the reader in having a deeper

understanding of how the environment, in all of its complexity, can

affect individuals, families, groups, and communities.

It is my hope that the information contained in this book will

help you, as a future social worker, approach client systems with

empathy, understanding, and a compassionate curiosity that allows

for comprehensive assessment, individualized approaches to

treatment, and continuity of care.

“Social advance depends as much upon the process through which
it is secured as upon the result itself.” –Jane Addams

2 | Introduction

About the Author:

Professor Whitney Payne was the Treatment Coordinator of the

Northwest Arkansas Community Correction Center, a residential

treatment facility that serves 100 non-violent, female offenders who

often struggle with chemical dependency. Professor Payne worked

at NWACCC from June of 2010 August of 2016. Professor Payne

became an adjunct faculty member with the University of Arkansas

School of Social Work in August of 2012 and was hired as a Clinical

Assistant Professor in August of 2016. Professor Payne graduated

with a BSW from the University of Alaska Anchorage in 2008 and

an MSW for the University of Arkansas in 2010. In addition to these

degrees, Professor Payne is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker as well

as a Certified Drug and Alcohol Counselor.

Introduction | 3

Attributions

Human Behavior and the Social Environment II is adapted from

various work produced and distributed under the Creative

Commons License. Below, is the list of all adapted chapters used in

the making of this book.

COVER DESIGN: Image by Gerd Altmann from Pixabay.

CHAPTER 1: Adapted from Self and Identity by Dan P. McAdams
under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-

ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

CHAPTER 2: Adapted from Module 1 from “Beyond Race: Cultural
Influences on Human Social Life” by Vera Kennedy under the license

CC BY-NC-SA 4.0.

CHAPTER 3: Adapted from Module 2 from “Beyond Race: Cultural
Influences on Human Social Life” by Vera Kennedy under the license

CC BY-NC-SA 4.0.

CHAPTER 4: Adapted from Module 3 from “Beyond Race: Cultural
Influences on Human Social Life” by Vera Kennedy under the license

CC BY-NC-SA 4.0.

CHAPTER 5: Adapted from Module 4 from “Beyond Race: Cultural
Influences on Human Social Life” by Vera Kennedy under the license

CC BY-NC-SA 4.0.

CHAPTER 6: Adapted from Module 5 from “Beyond Race: Cultural
Influences on Human Social Life” by Vera Kennedy under the license

CC BY-NC-SA 4.0.

CHAPTER 7: Adapted from Chapter 6.3 from Principles of Social
Psychology by the University of Minnesota under the Creative

4 | Attributions

Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0

International License.

CHAPTER 8: Adapted from Chapter 2 from Social Problems by the
University of Minnesota under the Creative Commons Attribution-

NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where

otherwise noted.

CHAPTER 9: Adapted from Prejudice, Discrimination, and
Stereotyping by Susan T. Fiske under the Creative Commons

Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Adapted from Chapter 3.2, Social Problems by University of

Minnesota is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-

NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where

otherwise noted.

Adapted from Chapter 4.2, Social Problems by University of

Minnesota is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-

NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where

otherwise noted.

Adapted from Chapter 4.6, Social Problems by University of

Minnesota is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-

NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where

otherwise noted.

Adapted from Chapter 4.5, Social Problems by University of

Minnesota is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-

NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where

otherwise noted.

Adapted from Unit II, Introduction to Women, Gender, Sexuality

Studies by Miliann Kang, Donovan Lessard, Laura Heston, Sonny

Nordmarken is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0

International License, except where otherwise noted.

CHAPTER 10: Adapted from Chapter 6 from Social Problems by the
University of Minnesota under the Creative Commons Attribution-

NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where

otherwise noted.

Attributions | 5

Adapted from page 37 through 38, Self and Identity by Dan P.

McAdams under the Creative Commons Attribution-

NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

CHAPTER 11: Adapted from Chapter 5 and Chapter 9.5 from Social
Problems by University of Minnesota under the Creative Commons

Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License,

except where otherwise noted.

Adapted from pages 39 through 43 from “Beyond Race: Cultural

Influences on Human Social Life” by Vera Kennedy under the license

CC BY-NC-SA 4.0.

Adapted from The International Encyclopedia of Human Sexuality.

CHAPTER 12: Adapted from The Family by Joel A. Muraco is licensed
under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-

ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

CHAPTER 13: Adapted from Relationships and Well-
being by Kenneth Tan and Louis Tay is licensed under a Creative

Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0

International License.

CHAPTER 14: Adapted from Epigenetics in Psychology by Ian
Weaver under the CC BY-NC-SA: Attribution-NonCommercial-

ShareAlike license.

CHAPTER 15: Adapted from Chapter 11 from Principles of Social
Psychology by University of Minnesota under the Creative

Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0

International License, except where otherwise noted.

CHAPTERS 16 & 17: Adapted from The Psychology of
Groups by Donelson R. Forsyth under the Creative Commons

Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

CHAPTER 18: Adapted from Industrial/Organizational (I/O)
Psychology by Berrin Erdogan and Talya N. Bauer under the

6 | Attributions

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0

International License.

CHAPTER 19: Adapted from Chapter 13 from Principles of Social
Psychology by University of Minnesota under the Creative

Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0

International License, except where otherwise noted.

CHAPTER 20: Adapted from pages 17 through 20 from “Beyond
Race: Cultural Influences on Human Social Life” by Vera Kennedy

under the license CC BY-NC-SA 4.0.

CHAPTER 21: Adapted from pages 43 through 44 from “Beyond
Race: Cultural Influences on Human Social Life” by Vera Kennedy

under the license CC BY-NC-SA 4.0.

CHAPTER 22: Adapted from Chapter 15 from Social Problems by the
University of Minnesota under the Creative Commons Attribution-

NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where

otherwise noted.

CHAPTER 23: Adapted from Chapter 14 from Social Problems by the
University of Minnesota under the Creative Commons Attribution-

NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where

otherwise noted.

CHAPTER 24: Adapted from Chapter 8.5 from Social Problems by
the University of Minnesota under the Creative Commons

Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License,

except where otherwise noted.

CHAPTER 25: Adapted from Chapters 1 from Immigrant and Refugee
Families, 2nd Ed. by Jaime Ballard, Elizabeth Wieling, Catherine

Solheim, and Lekie Dwanyen under the Creative Commons

Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, except

where otherwise noted.

CHAPTER 26: Adapted from Chapters 2 from Immigrant and

Attributions | 7

Refugee Families, 2nd Ed. by Jaime Ballard, Elizabeth Wieling,

Catherine Solheim, and Lekie Dwanyen under the Creative

Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License,

except where otherwise noted.

CHAPTER 27: Adapted from Chapters 3 from Immigrant and
Refugee Families, 2nd Ed. by Jaime Ballard, Elizabeth Wieling,

Catherine Solheim, and Lekie Dwanyen under the Creative

Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License,

except where otherwise noted.

CHAPTER 28: Adapted from Chapters 4 from Immigrant and
Refugee Families, 2nd Ed. by Jaime Ballard, Elizabeth Wieling,

Catherine Solheim, and Lekie Dwanyen under the Creative

Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License,

except where otherwise noted.

CHAPTER 29: Adapted from Chapters 5 from Immigrant and
Refugee Families, 2nd Ed. by Jaime Ballard, Elizabeth Wieling,

Catherine Solheim, and Lekie Dwanyen under the Creative

Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License,

except where otherwise noted.

CHAPTER 30: Adapted from Chapters 6 from Immigrant and
Refugee Families, 2nd Ed. by Jaime Ballard, Elizabeth Wieling,

Catherine Solheim, and Lekie Dwanyen under the Creative

Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License,

except where otherwise noted.

CHAPTER 31: Adapted from Chapters 7 from Immigrant and Refugee
Families, 2nd Ed. by Jaime Ballard, Elizabeth Wieling, Catherine

Solheim, and Lekie Dwanyen under the Creative Commons

Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, except

where otherwise noted.

CHAPTER 32: Adapted from Chapters 8 from Immigrant and
Refugee Families, 2nd Ed. by Jaime Ballard, Elizabeth Wieling,

8 | Attributions

Catherine Solheim, and Lekie Dwanyen under the Creative

Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License,

except where otherwise noted.

CHAPTER 33: Adapted from Chapters 9 from Immigrant and
Refugee Families, 2nd Ed. by Jaime Ballard, Elizabeth Wieling,

Catherine Solheim, and Lekie Dwanyen under the Creative

Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License,

except where otherwise noted.

Attributions | 9

PART I

TRADITIONAL
PARADIGMS & DOMINANT
PERSPECTIVES ON
INDIVIDUALS

Traditional Paradigms & Dominant
Perspectives on Individuals | 11

Chapter 1: Self and Identity

Learning Objectives

• Explain the basic idea of reflexivity in human

selfhood—how the “I” encounters and makes sense of

itself (the “Me”).

• Describe fundamental distinctions between three

different perspectives on the self: the self as actor,

agent, and author.

• Describe how a sense of self as a social actor

emerges around the age of 2 years and how it

develops going forward.

• Describe the development of the self’s sense of

motivated agency from the emergence of the child’s

theory of mind to the articulation of life goals and

values in adolescence and beyond.

• Define the term narrative identity, and explain what

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