Sociology Sociology Sociologist Lucien Lombardo wrote in
The Truth Will Set You Free:
“Childhood is not the shortest age in our life, but rather the longest, because it stays with us until our death.”
ALL ABOUT SPANKING
STATUS OF CHILDREN
Other than children, only convicted criminals are legally allowed to be punished.
But children do not even have the rights of criminals, as they are allowed to be punished without a trial.
When a big kid hits a little kid on the playground, we call him a bully.
When a man punches another for a wallet he is called a mugger.
But when he becomes a father and hits his tiresome, disobedient or disrespectful child, we call him a disciplinarian.
FOUR MOST COMMON DISCIPLINARY ACTIONS
Removal of privileges
Spanking (most popular)
EVEN THOSE THAT DON’T SPANK
Often THREATEN to spank.
SPANKING APPROVAL in U.S.
Those approving of spanking: 65%
Those disapproving of spanking: 31%
Should be permitted in school: 26%
Should not be permitted in school: 72%
“I KNOW WHAT YOU NEED…”
YOU DESERVE A SPANKING
Defined as physical contact by a parent with the intent of modifying the behavior of the child, by producing an unpleasant and painful sensation.
TYPES OF SPANKING
Instrumental (done when the parent is calm and thoughtful) or
Impulsive (when the parent is distressed and emotional).
This is particularly important as more emotional parents are more likely to be impulsive, and are more likely to make negative attributions about their children’s behavior and use corporal punishment believing it is justified and normal.
SO, WE SPANK AT HOME
WE SPANK AT SCHOOL
DISABLED STUDENTS SPANKED MORE
DON PHELPS RECEIVES AWARD FOR MOST SCHOOL SPANKINGS
Attended Roosevelt Elementary School, shows award he received while attending the school in the 1930s. He was honored for holding the all-time record of the most spankings in one year — 14 of them.
SCHOOL SPANKING, 1910
SCHOOL SPANKING IN KANSAS, 1915
SCHOOL SPANKING IN TEXAS, 1977
OK to spank if student sneezes, says U.S. Supreme Court
HITTING KNUCKLES IN MISSISSIPPI, 1991
FRATERNITY SPANKING IN TEXAS, 1998
AMBER PAGE, TEXAS CHEERLEADER, 1999
Got caught smoking in the girl’s room, was spanked, and first to sue in Texas.
NOT ONLY IN THE U.S. – STUDENT IN SOUTH AFRICA, 1999
STUDENT IN TAIWAN, 2001
NOT ONLY YEARS AGO – ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILD BEING SPANKED IN TENNESSEE, 2002
VIRGINIA H.S. FOOTBALL COACH SPANKED PLAYERS, 2003
FOOTBALL PLAYERS SPANKED IN MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE, 2006
WE HAVE SPANKED AT CAMP
EVEN THE U.S. MARINES
AND THE U.S. NAVY
WE’VE HIT SLAVES
SO DID THE ANCIENT EGYPTIANS
AND THE ANCIENT GREEKS & ROMANS
WE MAKE FUN OF SPANKING
TO LESSEN IT’S IMPACT
SPANKING IN CHILDREN’S CARTOONS
MODERN DENNIS THE MENACE 2004
EVEN IN PEANUTS??
SPANKING IN ADVERTISING
POWER & STUART TOBACCO, 1890s
Socialization to make spanking acceptable and pervasive
BAKING POWDER, EARLY 1890s
JOCKEY UNDERWEAR, 1940s
FLETCHER’S LAXATIVES, 1940s
SHINOLA SHOE SHINE,1948
SANKA DECAF COFFEE, 1950
LIBERTY MUTUAL INSURANCE, 1954
HAVILAND MOTOR OIL, 1959
SHOE SOLES, 1960
CHEEZ-IT CRACKERS, 1960s
VOLKSWAGEN CARS, 1965
CHASE & SANBORN COFFEE, 1969
VAN HEUSEN SHIRTS 1970s
KING OF THE HILL, 1997
GUCCI MEN’S CLOTHES, 2005
VIRGIN BRITISH MEGASTORE ADVERTISEMENT, 2006
SPANKING IN THE MOVIES
WE SPANKED IN WESTERNS
JOHN WAYNE SPANKED
ELVIS PRESLEY SPANKED
WE SPANKED ON T.V.
RICKY SPANKED LUCY
AND THEY KISSED & MADE UP
WE SPANK FOR BIRTHDAYS
SAYS IT ALL
WE EVEN SEXUALIZE SPANKING
DEMOGRAPHICS OF SPANKING
Although found in most cultures, the degree of severity and laws vary.
Spanking is NOT found in hunting and gathering societies.
RACE AND SPANKING IN THE U.S.
Ethnic differences in the link between physical discipline and later adolescent externalizing behaviors, Jennifer E. Lansford, Kirby Deater-Deckard, Kenneth A. Dodge, John E. Bates, and Gregory S. Pettit, 2004.
Whites tend to associate spanking with parental loss of control, anger, and aggression.
African Americans tend to associate it with a legitimate parental expression of authority and training.
ETHNICITY AND SPANKING
Non-hispanic white and black more likely to spank
Hispanic white more likely to spank than Hispanic black
AGE AND SPANKING
Younger women more likely to spank than older women
Older men more likely to spank than younger men
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL & SPANKING
Women with college degrees less likely to spank than women with high school diplomas
Women with Ph.D.s are least likely to spank
Educational level has no effect for men
Women in professional occupations are less likely to spank than women in non-professional occupations.
MAJOR CROSS CULTURAL STUDY
Child Development, Vol. 76, Issue 6, 2005; Physical Discipline and Children’s Adjustment: Cultural Normativeness by Malone and Quinn N. (Duke University), Chang (Chinese University of Hong Kong), Oburu Palm (Georg University), Bacchini (University of Naples), Pastorelli and Bombi (Rome University), Zelli (Istituto Universitario di Scienze Motorie), Tapanya (Chiang Mai University), Chaudhary (University of Delhi), Deater-Deckard (University of Oregon), and Manke (California State University, Long Beach).
Spanking your child raises risk of aggression and anxiety in all cultures
TOOLS OF SPANKING
CAT OF NINE TAILS
SPARE THE ROD,
SPOIL THE CHILD
The hitting rod:
DAD’S LEATHER BELTS
WAIT UNTIL YOUR FATHER GETS HOME
MOM’S WOODEN SPOONS
WE EVEN USE OUR OWN HANDS
AND, WE EVEN PULL PANTS DOWN TO SPANK
WE SPANK IN PUBLIC
AND, SADLY, WE EVEN “SPANK” ANIMALS
HEADMSTER CANES IN ENGLAND TODAY
WHIPPING FRAME IN WALES
PADDLING TABLE FOR PRISONERS IN CANADA, ENDED IN 1968
COLORADO PRISON FLOGGING, 1920S
FOWLER TOWNSHIP, OHIO, 2005
Police chief James Martin ran a voluntary juvenile diversion program (a kind of informal probation) which included supervising the teenagers in a range of activities.
One optional part of the program was for the young men, with their parents’ approval, to be required to report to the police station regularly for a moderate paddling to keep them on the right path.
FLOGGING IN ENGLAND, 1930s and 1970s
FLOGGING IN CHINA, 1940s
WHIPPING TRESTLE IN GERMANY, 1980s
CANING FRAME IN HONG KONG & SINGAPORE, 1980s
PUBLIC HITTING IN RUSSIA, 1998
WHIPPING IN WEST AFRICA, 2000
COLLEGE STUDENT IN UGANDA, 2000
PUBLIC CANING IN PAKISTAN, 2002
SAUDI ARABIA, 2005
TEENAGERS FLOGGED IN INDIA, 2005
WOMAN FLOGGED IN SOMALIA, 2006
TALIBAN FLOGGING A WOMAN IN AFGHANISTAN, 2006
Recent, longitudinal and objective studies show that even moderate spanking can have devastating results for a minority of children — particularly males — after they reach adulthood.
These same studies have shown that the abandonment of spanking will greatly decrease adult violence, mental illness, anxiety disorders, aggression, alcoholism, drug addiction, and criminal activity.
Dr. Murray Straus of the University of New Hampshire is one of the world’s leading experts in family violence, including the spanking of children.
His 2001 book compares commonly held beliefs about spanking with the results of carefully made studies about the negative effects of spanking after studying 9,000 families.
“Beating the Devil Out of Them: Corporal Punishment in American Children,” Transaction Publishers, (2nd edition; 2001).
Spanking appears to “work” in the short run because the child stops doing whatever provoked the parent’s displeasure.
But Straus clearly shows that in the longer run, spanking has no measurable beneficial effects at all, and is associated with a variety of long term negative effects.
The more children are spanked, the more they assault siblings and other children.
Spanking in childhood is associated with higher levels of alcoholism, depression, masochistic fantasy, spousal abuse, and suicidal ideation later in life.
EFFECTS OF SPANKING
SHAME & GUILT
FEAR & RAGE
Children who are spanked tend to be more anxious and aggressive than those who aren’t.
AND OTHER EFFECTS
Hitting models hitting
Hitting devalues the child
Hitting devalues the parent
Hitting can lead to abuse
Hitting does not improve behavior
Hitting promotes anger in children AND in parents
Hitting brings back bad memories
Hitting does not work in the long run
RELIGION & SPANKING
Effects of Puritanism
Proverbs 23:14, 19:18 and 13:24. These verses instruct parents to discipline their children using a rod of correction.
Prov 22:15: “Foolishness is bound in the heart of a child; but the rod of correction shall drive it far from him.”
Prov 23:13: “Withhold not correction from the child: for if thou beatest him with the rod, he shall not die.”
Prov 23:14: “Thou shalt beat him with the rod, and shalt deliver his soul from hell (Shoel).”
OLD vs. NEW TESTAMENT
While Christians and Jews believe that the Old Testament is the inspired word of God, it is also an historical text that has been interpreted in many ways over the centuries in order to support the beliefs of the times.
Other parts of the Bible, especially the New Testament, suggest that respect, authority, and tenderness should be the prevailing attitudes toward children among people of faith.
MAJOR THEME IN RELIGIOUS DOCUMENTS
However, there is a major theme that runs through the Hebrew Scriptures (a.k.a. Old Testament), the Christian Scriptures (New Testament), and other ancient Jewish and Christian documents. It is commonly called the “Golden Rule” — to treat others as you would wish to be treated.
ALL MAJOR RELIGIONS HAVE “GOLDEN RULE” PASSAGES
There are similar “Golden Rule” passages in all of the major religions of the world including the Bahá’í world faith, Brahmanism, Buddhism, Confujsianism, Ancient Egyptian, Hinduism, Humanism, Islam, Jainism, Native American Spirituality, Shinto, Sikhism, Taoism. Unitarian Universalism, Wicca, Youruba, Zoroastrianism
THE BIBLE & SLAVERY
In the 19th century, many North American Christians quoted general themes in the Bible, including the Golden Rule, the need for justice, the importance of human dignity and freedom, etc. to argue that the owning of slaves was immoral.
But other Christians quoted specific passages in the Bible which condoned, regulated and controlled slavery; they argued that no passage in the Bible condemned slavery as immoral.
In the New Testament, Christ modified the traditional eye-for-an-eye system of justice with His turn-the-other-cheek approach. Christ preached gentleness, love, and understanding, and seemed against any harsh use of the rod, as stated by Paul in 1 Cor. 4:21: “Shall I come to you with the whip (rod), or in love and with a gentle spirit?”
Paul went on to teach fathers about the importance of not provoking anger in their children (which is what spanking usually does): “Fathers, do not exasperate your children” (Eph. 6:4), and “Fathers, do not embitter your children, or they will be discouraged” (Col. 3:21).
RELIGIOUS ANTI-SPANKING RESOLUTIONS
2004 when the United Methodist Church overwhelmingly approved an anti-spanking resolution at their General Conference
HISTORY OF SPANKING REFORM
1867: New Jersey becomes the first state to ban corporal punishment in public schools.
1946: Pediatrician Benjamin Spock, M.D., publishes Baby and Child Care, in which he counsels parents against the punitive child-raising practices of earlier generations and encourages a more psychological approach to discipline.
1971: Massachusetts becomes the second state to ban corporal punishment in schools.
1979: Sweden bans spanking, becoming the first country to do so.
IMPORTANT DATES CONTINUED
1998: The American Academy of Pediatrics issues a statement discouraging all spanking.
2002: A Canadian court bans straps in schools, leaving the U.S. as the only industrialized Western nation without a national ban on corporal punishment in schools.
2007: Sacramento, California parents could face jail and a fine for spanking their young children under legislation a state lawmaker introduced in January 2007.
SO, WHY DO WE SPANK
We learned it – it was done to our grandparents, our parents, and us…
BETTER USE OF HANDS
PROJECT NO SPANK
OBJECT OF SPANKING REFORM LAWS: TO CREATE A SAFE ZONE…
FOR OUR CHILDREN…