Situational Leadership Approach Case Study Critical Thinking situational leadership approach case study critical thinking Please refer to the attached wo

situational leadership approach case study critical thinking 

Please refer to the attached word file “Leadership – Module 3” File

Chapter 2: Trait Approach

Northouse, Leadership, 9th edition. © SAGE Publications, 2021.

Description (1 of 17)

Leadership trait research became common in the 20th century.

Originally focused on “great man” theories.

Stogdill reviewed the literature on leadership traits in both 1948 and 1974.

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2.1: Describe the history of the trait approach and how it plays a role in the leadership process

Leadership trait research was common in the early 20th century.

Typically researched “great man” theories, which focused on identifying innate qualities and characteristics of social, political, and military leaders.

Prevalent belief that only “great” people possessed these traits, and they were inborn rather than developed.

In the mid-20th century, Stogdill reviewed the literature and suggested than no consistent set of traits differentiated leaders across various situations.

Those with leadership traits might be a leader in one situation, but not another.

Leadership is not a quality, but a relationship between people in a social situation.

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Northouse, Leadership, 9th edition. © SAGE Publications, 2021.

Description (2 of 17)

Did not decrease modern interest in the trait approach.

Interest after the election of Obama.

Jung and Sosik (2006) found charismatic leaders qualities

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2.1: Describe the history of the trait approach and how it plays a role in the leadership process

This did not decrease researchers’ interest in the trait approach in modern times.

Due to the charismatic persona of President Barack Obama, much research has been done on visionaries and charismatic leaders.

Jung and Sosik (2006) found charismatic leaders are:

Self-monitors.

Engaged in impression management.

Motivated to attain social power.

Motivated to achieve self-actualization.

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Northouse, Leadership, 9th edition. © SAGE Publications, 2021.

Description (3 of 17)

Stogdill’s 1948 literature review found these differences between leaders and group-members:

Intelligence.

Alertness.

Insight.

Responsibility. (cont.)

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2.1: Describe the history of the trait approach and how it plays a role in the leadership process

Stogdill’s multiple analyses of literature on the subject provide a good overview of the trait approach.

His first survey identified leadership traits related to how individuals in various groups became leaders.

Asserted that individuals do not become leaders just because of certain personality traits; the traits must be relevant to the leadership situations.

Leadership is not a passive state and grows from the working relationship between leaders and group members.

According to Stogdill’s first literature review, average individuals in leadership roles are different from the average group member in eight key ways:

Intelligence.

Alertness.

Insight.

Responsibility.

Initiative.

Persistence.

Self-confidence.

Sociability.

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Northouse, Leadership, 9th edition. © SAGE Publications, 2021.

Description (4 of 17)

Initiative.

Persistence.

Self-confidence.

Sociability.

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2.1: Describe the history of the trait approach and how it plays a role in the leadership process

Stogdill’s multiple analyses of literature on the subject provide a good overview of the trait approach.

His first survey identified leadership traits related to how individuals in various groups became leaders.

Asserted that individuals do not become leaders just because of certain personality traits; the traits must be relevant to the leadership situations.

Leadership is not a passive state and grows from the working relationship between leaders and group members.

According to Stogdill’s first literature review, average individuals in leadership roles are different from the average group member in eight key ways:

Intelligence.

Alertness.

Insight.

Responsibility.

Initiative.

Persistence.

Self-confidence.

Sociability.

5

Northouse, Leadership, 9th edition. © SAGE Publications, 2021.

Description (5 of 17)

Stogdill’s 1974 literature review found these differences between leaders and group-members:

Drive for responsibility/task completion.

Vigor/persistence.

Risk-taking/originality.

Socially initiative. (cont.)

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2.1: Describe the history of the trait approach and how it plays a role in the leadership process

Stogdill’s second literature review took a more balanced approach, asserting that leadership is determined by both traits and situational factors. 10 traits positively associated with leadership were:

Drive for responsibility and task completion.

Vigor and persistence in pursuit of goals.

Risk-taking and originality in problem-solving.

Drive to exercise initiative in social situations.

Self-confidence and sense of personal identity.

Willingness to accept consequences of decision and action.

Readiness to absorb interpersonal stress.

Willingness to tolerate frustration and delay.

Ability to influence other people’s behavior.

Capacity to structure social interaction systems to the purpose at hand.

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Northouse, Leadership, 9th edition. © SAGE Publications, 2021.

Description (6 of 17)

Self-confidence/personal identity.

Accepts consequences.

Absorbs interpersonal stress.

Tolerates frustration/delay.

Influences others.

Structures social interaction systems.

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2.1: Describe the history of the trait approach and how it plays a role in the leadership process

Stogdill’s second literature review took a more balanced approach, asserting that leadership is determined by both traits and situational factors. 10 traits positively associated with leadership were:

Drive for responsibility and task completion.

Vigor and persistence in pursuit of goals.

Risk-taking and originality in problem-solving.

Drive to exercise initiative in social situations.

Self-confidence and sense of personal identity.

Willingness to accept consequences of decision and action.

Readiness to absorb interpersonal stress.

Willingness to tolerate frustration and delay.

Ability to influence other people’s behavior.

Capacity to structure social interaction systems to the purpose at hand.

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Northouse, Leadership, 9th edition. © SAGE Publications, 2021.

Description (7 of 17)

Mann’s 1959 study found these qualities in powerful leaders:

Intelligence.

Masculinity.

Adjustment.

Dominance.

Extraversion.

Conservatism.

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2.1: Describe the history of the trait approach and how it plays a role in the leadership process

Lord et al. (1986) meta-analysis of Mann’s traits: Significantly related to the perception of leadership: intelligence, dominance, and masculinity.

Found that intelligence, masculinity, and dominance were significantly related to how individuals perceived leaders.

Both the Mann and Lord et al. studies were conducted during periods where male leadership was overwhelmingly prevalent, so results may not be important factors anymore.

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Northouse, Leadership, 9th edition. © SAGE Publications, 2021.

Description (8 of 17)

Kirkpatrick and Locke’s (1991) six traits of leadership:

Drive.

Motivation.

Integrity.

Confidence.

Cognitive ability.

Task knowledge.

Authors believed these traits could be innate or acquired.

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2.1: Describe the history of the trait approach and how it plays a role in the leadership process

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Northouse, Leadership, 9th edition. © SAGE Publications, 2021.

Description (9 of 17)

The 1990s saw a focus on social intelligence, a combination of:

Social awareness.

Social acumen.

Self-monitoring.

Responses informed by situational awareness.

Research typically converges on five leadership traits:

Intelligence.

Self-confidence.

Determination.

Integrity.

Sociability.

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2.1: Describe the history of the trait approach and how it plays a role in the leadership process

The 1990s saw a focus on social intelligence, or the ability to understand one’s own and others’ feelings, behaviors, and thoughts and act appropriately.

Component skills:

Social awareness.

Social acumen.

Self-monitoring.

Ability to select and enact the best response given the contingencies of the situation and environment.

These capacities were empirically shown to be key traits for effective leaders.

Research generally converges on five leadership traits: intelligence, self-confidence, determination, integrity, and sociability.

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Northouse, Leadership, 9th edition. © SAGE Publications, 2021.

Description (10 of 17)

Intelligence

Leaders tend towards higher IQs.

Strong verbal, perceptual, and reasoning abilities.

Optimally, leaders should be just over 1 standard deviation of IQ above followers.

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2.1: Describe the history of the trait approach and how it plays a role in the leadership process

Leaders tend to have a somewhat higher IQ than non-leaders. Too much higher, and it has a counterproductive impact on leadership as barriers to communication and understanding arise.

Strong verbal, perceptual, and reasoning abilities appear to make better leaders.

Optimal deviation in IQ is a little more than one standard deviation from the mean IQ of the group membership. As IQ increases beyond that point, perceived quality of leadership declines.

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Northouse, Leadership, 9th edition. © SAGE Publications, 2021.

Description (11 of 17)

Self-Confidence

The ability to be certain about one’s competencies and skills.

Influencing followers is easier when one feels:

High self-esteem.

High self-assurance.

The belief that one can make a difference.

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2.1: Describe the history of the trait approach and how it plays a role in the leadership process

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Northouse, Leadership, 9th edition. © SAGE Publications, 2021.

Description (12 of 17)

Determination

The desire to get the job done.

Leaders are assertive, proactive, and dedicated.

Component characteristics:

Initiative.

Persistence.

Dominance.

Drive.

“Grit,” which influences recovery from setbacks.

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2.1: Describe the history of the trait approach and how it plays a role in the leadership process

“Grit” or the degree of perseverance toward goal attainment influences recovery from setbacks

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Northouse, Leadership, 9th edition. © SAGE Publications, 2021.

Description (13 of 17)

Integrity

Honesty and trustworthiness.

Highly principled and accept responsibility.

Loyal and dependable.

Followers trust a leader with integrity to deliver on their promises.

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2.1: Describe the history of the trait approach and how it plays a role in the leadership process

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Northouse, Leadership, 9th edition. © SAGE Publications, 2021.

Description (14 of 17)

Sociability

Inclination to seek out pleasant social relationships.

Friendly and outgoing.

Tactful, diplomatic, and courteous.

Sensitive to others’ needs.

Good interpersonal skills.

Forge cooperative relationships with followers.

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2.1: Describe the history of the trait approach and how it plays a role in the leadership process

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Northouse, Leadership, 9th edition. © SAGE Publications, 2021.

Description (15 of 17)

Five-Factor Personality Model and Leadership

Research indicates the “Big 5” personality traits:

Extraversion (surgency).

Conscientiousness.

Openness (intellect).

Neuroticism.

Agreeableness.

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2.1: Describe the history of the trait approach and how it plays a role in the leadership process

Extraversion (surgency): the trait most strongly associated with leaders.

Conscientiousness: highest correlation with overall job performance, task performance, organizational citizenship behavior, and a negative correlation with counterproductive work behavior.

Openness (intellect)

Neuroticism: low neuroticism is positively associated with leadership.

Agreeableness: has only a weak association to leadership.

“OCEAN” acronym.

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Northouse, Leadership, 9th edition. © SAGE Publications, 2021.

Description (16 of 17)

Strengths and Leadership

Everyone has strengths or talents.

Good leaders leverage their own strengths as well as those of their followers.

Character strengths and virtues can improve leaders/leadership.

Integrity is the primary contributor to differences in executive performance.

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2.1: Describe the history of the trait approach and how it plays a role in the leadership process

Strengths and Leadership

Central idea: everyone has special talents, and good leaders recognize and capitalize on their own strengths and the strengths of their followers as well.

Strength: an attribute or quality of an individual that accounts for successful performance; some define it as the ability to consistently demonstrate exceptional work.

Character strengths and virtues can be used to improve leaders and leadership.

Leaders with high self-control, honesty/humility, empathy, and moral courage have better ethical leadership, psychological functioning, and role performance (Sosik et al., 2019).

Integrity contributes the most to explaining differences in executive performance (Sosik, Gentry, and Chun, 2012).

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Northouse, Leadership, 9th edition. © SAGE Publications, 2021.

Description (17 of 17)

Emotional Intelligence

Emotional intelligence is the interplay of:

The affective domain: emotions.

The cognitive domain: thoughts.

Components of emotional intelligence:

Perceiving and expressing emotion.

Using emotion to facilitate thinking.

Understanding and reasoning with emotions.

Managing emotions in oneself and relationships.

Not a fixed characteristic; can be trained.

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2.1: Describe the history of the trait approach and how it plays a role in the leadership process

Emotional Intelligence

The interplay between emotions, or the affective domain, and thinking, or the cognitive domain.

Understanding emotions and applying this understanding to life’s tasks.

Most specifically, the ability to perceive and express emotions, to use emotions to facilitate thinking, to understand and reason with emotions, and to effectively manage emotions within oneself and in relationships.

Emotional intelligence is not a fixed characteristic; it can be improved through training.

Leaders trained in emotional intelligence are less stressed, more moral, and more civil.

Goleman and Boyatzis suggest four aspects: Self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management.

FedEx’s emotional intelligence training program encourages managers to: “Know Yourself,” “Choose Yourself,” and “Give Yourself.” This has improved competencies.

The United States Army used a brief internet training program in emotional intelligence which improved servicemembers’ emotional flexibility, adaptability, and coping skills.

Emotional intelligence is not yet mainstream in leadership research, but appears to play a role in the leadership process.

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Author, Title and Edition. © SAGE Publications, 2018.

How Does the Trait Approach Work?

Focuses exclusively on the leader.

Leader’s traits are central.

Designated leadership profiles.

Traits assessments for personal development

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2.2: Explain how the trait approach works

This approach differs from other because it focuses exclusively on the leader, not on the follower.

In this approach, it is essential for a leader to have a certain set of traits in order to be effective. Therefore, the leader’s traits are central to this approach.

It is common for organizations to use trait assessment instruments in order to find leaders that fit their leadership profiles. Different assessments can be used to determine if an individual fits their leadership profile. By using these assessments, leaders can assess their strengths and weaknesses and work to improve.

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Northouse, Leadership, 9th edition. © SAGE Publications, 2021.

Strengths

Intuitively appealing.

Extensive body of research.

Benchmarks for growth.

Helps organizations identify and train leaders.

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2.3 Discuss the strengths of the traits approach

Strengths

Intuitive appeal: society already tends to push the premise that leaders are a special kind of people who do extraordinary things.

Extensive body of research.

Benchmarks to develop or cultivate leadership traits.

Helps organizations identify leaders and train potential leaders.

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Northouse, Leadership, 9th edition. © SAGE Publications, 2021.

Criticisms

No definitive list of traits.

Does not consider situational influences.

Highly subjective determinations of the most important leadership traits.

Hasn’t connected traits to specific leadership outcomes.

Limited usefulness for training and development.

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2.4 Discuss the weaknesses of the traits approach

Criticisms

Fails to delimit a definitive list of traits.

Fails to take the influence of the situation on leadership into account.

Research has resulted in highly subjective determinations of the most important leadership traits.

Most apparent in the wide range of opinions in self-help, practice-oriented management books.

Fails to look at traits in relationship to leadership outcomes.

Specific traits link to leader emergence, but not with other outcomes like productivity.

Limited usefulness for leadership training and development.

Traits appear to be largely fixed psychological structures.

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Northouse, Leadership, 9th edition. © SAGE Publications, 2021.

Application

Provides direction for personal development.

Helps managers to:

Assess their current role in an organization.

Determine their leadership strengths.

Develop ways of strengthening their position within the organization.

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2.5 Explain how you can use information from the traits approach to strengthen your leadership position

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