See A&P 1 Exam Review 1) The connective tissue layer that surrounds each bundle of muscle fibers is called? 2) Which of the following is NOT true of a myofibril? 3) Name the muscle that contracts to assist the main muscle in performing an action 4) What is the role of tropomyosin in a sarcomere? 5) What is a fascicle of a skeletal muscle? 6) Which of the following nerves innervates the muscles of mastication? 7) Which of the following muscles of the head and neck originates on the sternum and clavicle, and inserts on the mastoid process? 8) Which of the following muscles of facial expression inserts on the orbicularis oris, and compresses the cheeks when blowing air? 9) Muscles in the forearm that move the hand have insertions on the 10) Which respiratory muscle(s) function(s) only during forced expiration? 11) Which of the following is NOT true of the diaphragm? 12) Which of the pelvic floor muscles inserts only on the coccyx? 13) Which of the abdominal wall muscles help(s) flex the vertebral column? 14) Which of the following muscles of the vertebral column are unique, in that they originate on the iliac crest? 15) The anterior portion of the perineum is called the 16) Muscles that move the thigh at the hip joint have insertions on the 17) Muscles that move the leg at the knee joint have origins on the 18) Which of the following is NOT true of the gastrocnemius muscle? 19) Which type of neuroglia forms the myelin sheath around some axons of the PNS (peripheral nervous system)? 20) A bundle of nerve fibers is surrounded by a layer of fibrous connective tissue called the 21) Sensory neurons are
Version 1 2 22) What is found in the posterior root ganglion of a spinal nerve 23) Which of the following is true of interneurons? 24) Which of the following is NOT true of the epidural space? 25) All of the following are major spinal nerve plexuses except the __________ plexus. 26) Which of the following is NOT true of the brachial plexus? 27) The normal response(s) in the plantar reflex is/are 28) Reflexes involving skeletal muscles are called __________ reflexes. 29) Which portion of a reflex arc is the only portion that is found entirely within the CNS? 30) The anterior roots of spinal nerves house axons of 31) Which of the following is NOT true of the cranial nerves? 32) Which of the dural septa separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum? 33) A shallow groove on the surface of the brain is called a 34) Which portion of the brainstem is responsible for the visual and auditory reflexes? 35) Which of the following is the main area of the brain that receives information from skin receptors and proprioceptors? 36) Which type of sensory receptors respond to tissue damage, such as a cut, or a temperature or pressure extreme? 37) Which of the following is NOT true of sensory adaptation? 38) Which of the following is NOT a stimulus for various mechanoreceptors? 39) A special sense is one that has 40) The form in which receptors send sensory information to the brain is called perception. 41) Umami taste receptors are sensitive to 42) Olfactory receptors cells send their action potentials through openings in the ethmoid bone, and synapse with neurons in the 43) The vagus nerve transmits gustatory nerve impulses from the entire tongue to the brain. 44) What is the function of the ciliary muscles? 45) Which portion of the lacrimal apparatus consists of 2 small pores that drain the tears off of the surface of the eye?
Version 1 3 46) Why is the optic disc sometimes called the blind spot of the eye? 47) Which of the following structures of the ear function(s) as (an) organ(s) in the sense of equilibrium? 48) Which of the following membranes acts as a rigid roof over the cilia of the hair cells of the spiral organ, causing the cilia to bend against it when sound waves are present 49) Vestibular neurons transmit nerve impulses along the vestibulocochlear nerve to all of the following sites except 50) The organs of static and dynamic equilibrium both contain hair cells, with stereocilia embedded in a gelatinous mass.
2.missing option(please provide the options for this question)
4.Answer : a resting sarcomere, tropomyosin blocks the binding of myosin to actin
Then the sarcomere shortens and the muscle contracts. In the absence of calcium, this binding does not occur, so the presence of free calcium is an important regulator of muscle contraction
5.Answer: Each fascicle (or fasciculus) is a bundle of muscle fibers, also called myocytes, bound together via the endomysium tissue that provides pathways for the passage of blood vessels and nerves.
6.There are four classical muscles of mastication. During mastication, three muscles of mastication (musculi masticatorii) are responsible for adduction of the jaw, and one (the lateral pterygoid) helps to abduct it. All four move the jaw laterally. Other muscles, usually associated with the hyoid, such as the mylohyoid muscle, are responsible for opening the jaw in addition to the lateral pterygoid.
7. ANSWER: sternocleidomastoid
8.Answer: buccinator muscle
9.Answer: olecranon process of ulna.
10. ANSWER: The diaphragm
11. missing option(please provide the options for this question)
13.Answer: Rectus abdominis
14.Answer: quadratus lumborum muscles
15.Answer: urogenital triangle
16. answer: Femur
17. ANSWER: Patella
18.missing option(please provide the options for this question)
19. Answer: Schwann cells
20. ANSWER: perineurium
21.Sensory neurons, also known as afferent neurons, are neurons in the nervous system, that convert a specific type of stimulus, via their receptors, into action potentials or graded potentials. The cell bodies of the sensory neurons are located in the dorsal ganglia of the spinal cord
It is common to group them into 5 classes: mechanoreceptors, thermoreceptors, nociceptors, electromagnetic receptors and chemoreceptors.
22.The cell bodies of sensory neurons known as first-order neurons
23. missing option(please provide the options for this question)
24.missing option(please provide the options for this question)
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26. missing option(please provide the options for this question)
27. ANSWER: the flexion and moving together of the toes.
28. ANSWER: Autonomic / Somatic reflexes
29. ANSWER: interneurons
30.Answer: motor neurons
31.missing option(please provide the options for this question
32.The tentorium cerebelli
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39.Special senses have specialized sense organs that gather sensory information and change it into nerve impulses. Special senses include vision (for which the eyes are the specialized sense organs), hearing (ears), balance (ears), taste (tongue), and smell (nasal passages).
40.Perception is the central processing of sensory stimuli into a meaningful pattern. Perception is dependent on sensation, but not all sensations are perceived. Receptors are the cells or structures that detect sensations. A receptor cell is changed directly by a stimulus.
41.glutamates and nucleotides,
42.Multiple Choice olfactory foramina olfactory cortex cribriform plate
43.The vagus nerve is responsible for the regulation of internal organ functions.
44.One function of the ciliary body is to control the lens of the eye. The ciliary body’s smooth muscles contract and relax to focus on near or far away objects. Muscle contractions are partly responsible for the round shape of the eye’s lenses since fine ligaments directly attach the lens to the ciliary body.
45 lacrimal gland
46.Because there are no receptors at the site of the optic disk, this location is also called the blind spot
47. The inner ear is the cochlea and vestibule which are responsible for hearing and equilibrium, respectively.
48. Basilar membrand
49.missing option(please provide the options for this question
11. When it contracts, it compresses the thorax and decreases its volume.
12. coccygeus muscles
13. Rectus abdominis
14. Quadratus lumborum
15. urogenital triangle
17. quadriceps femoris muscle group
18. CAN YOU PUT IN THE COMMENT BOX THE CHOICES FOR THIS NUMBER
19. Schwann Cells
11. The diaphragm is a skin muscle that connects the stomach to the chest and covers the lungs and thoracic cavity. It is located at the base of the chest. The diaphragm is the primary mover since it controls the major muscle during inhaling. During inspiration, it flattens by contracting and expanding the chest cavity or thoracic cavity, increasing the volume of the thorax and lowering the pressure inside the lungs, allowing air to enter the lungs.
12. The coccygeus muscles attach to the ischial spines anteriorly, then fan out medially to attach to the coccyx’s lateral side.
13. The rectus abdominis, being one of the principal movers in spine flexion, also helps to flex the vertebral column and pull the pelvis forward. In addition to the internal and external obliques, the internal and external obliques are the principal movers in spine flexion.
14. The quadratus lumborum muscle, often known as the QL, is a pair of posterior abdominal wall muscles on the left and right sides. It’s the deepest abdominal muscle, and it’s also known as the back muscle. Each one is a quadrilateral with an unusual shape.
15. The line between the ischial tuberosities divides the perineum into two triangular halves. The vaginal and urethral outputs are located in the anterior section of the urogenital triangle.
16. The thigh muscles have their origins in the pelvic girdle and their insertions on the femur. The gluteal muscles, which adduct the thigh as a group, have the most muscular mass in the posterior group. The thigh is flexed by the iliopsoas, an anterior muscle.
17. The quadriceps femoris muscle group (rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medius, and vastus intermedius) acts to extend the leg by crossing the knee via the patella. The hamstring group muscles (semitendinosus, semimembranosus, and biceps femoris) are responsible for flexion and extension of the knee and hip.
18. CAN YOU PUT IN THE COMMENT BOX THE CHOICES FOR THIS NUMBER.
19. The central nervous system contains oligodendrocytes (CNS). Each Schwann cell wraps an axon in a single myelin sheath. Each oligodendrocyte, on the other hand, produces several sheaths (up to 30 or more) around distinct axons.
20. A fasciculus is a bundle of nerve fibers that is encircled by a layer of connective tissue called the perineurium.
21)SENSORY NEURONS are those neurons that carry sensory inputs from the sensory receptors to the nervous system.
22)Posterior root ganglion of the spinal nerve is also called a Dorsal root ganglion. It contains Sensory nuclei.
23)(the question is incomplete, but I will explain interneurons here)
Interneurons are also called Association neurons found in the grey matter of the spinal cord. Interneurons connect different types of neurons. These neurons are either inhibitory or excitatory.
ex: seen in Substantia gelatinosa
24)(the question is incomplete; I will explain epidural space here)
Epidural space is a space between the spinal dura mater and the periosteal lining of the vertebral canal.
· it separates the bony wall of the spinal canal from spinal meninges
· it is filled with fat and loose areolar tissue.
· it contains small spinal arteries and veins, lateral vertebral venous plexus.
26)(the question is incomplete; I will explain brachial plexus here)
1. Roots: -C5, C6, C7, C8 & T1
2. TRUNKS: –
· ROOTS C5, C6 -> UPPER TRUNK
· ROOT C7-> MIDDLE TRUNK
· ROOT C8, C9, T1 -> LOWER TRUNK
3. CORDS: –
3. LATERAL CORD: -Ventral division of upper and middle trunk.
3. MEDIAL CORD: – Ventral division of lower trunk.
3. POSTERIOR CORD: – Dorsal division of upper, middle & lower trunk.
BRANCHES FROM ROOT: –
· Nerve to Serratus anterior (long thoracic nerve)
· Dorsal scapular nerve.
BRANCHES FROM TRUNK: –
· Suprascapular nerve
· Nerve to subclavius
BRANCHES FROM CORD
· LATERAL CORD: –
· Lateral pectoral nerve.
· Musculocutaneous nerve.
· Lateral root of median nerve.
· MEDIAL CORD: –
· Medial pectoral nerve.
· Medial cutaneous nerve of arm and forearm.
· Ulnar nerve.
· Median root of Median nerve.
· POSTERIOR CORD: –
· Upper scapular nerve.
· Thoracodorsal nerve.
· Lower subscapular nerve.
· Axillary nerve.
· Radial nerve.
27)In normal Plantar reflex, when you stroke the lateral aspect of the sole from heel to the ball of the foot, in a curved manner, the foot Plantar flexes and bends down the toes and fingers. This is also called a negative Babinski sign.
28)Reflexes involving skeletal muscles are called SOMATIC reflexes.
29)INTERNUERON portion of a reflex arc is the only portion that is found entirely within the CNS.
30)The anterior roots of spinal nerves house axons of MOTOR NUCLEI.
21) For example: -when you touch a cold object, the sensory receptor at your fingertip recognizes it and sensory neurons carry it to the nervous system for processing.
1. Substantia Gelatinosa :- the nucleus of the spinothalamic tract that carries pain, temperature, crude touch.
2. Nucleus Proprius:-receive posterior tract column.
3. Nucleus dorsalis or Clarke’s column: – receive Spinocerebellar tract.
4. Visceral efferent: -receive afferent from viscera.
29)That is the reflex arc has Sensory neuron, Interneuron (association neuron), & Motor neuron. Here only the interneuron portion is found exclusively in the CNS.
30)The Motor nuclei are: –
1. Lateral nuclei: – innervates limb muscles.
2. Intermediate nuclei: -innervates diaphragm.
3. Medial nuclei: -innervates axial muscles. (Trunk muscles)
32 – tentorium cerebelli (a tent like dural septal fold which separate tge cerebellum & cerebrum as well as the brainstem
33 – sulci (grooved are sulci & elevation are gyri)
34 – Midbrain (has superior & inferior colliculous for the reflex)
36 mechanoreceptor (deep pressure) thermoceptors (temperature) nociceptor (pain)
39- A special sense is that particular sensory stimulus for which a particular organ is designated. It is not generalised sensation which can be transmitted by any other organ (example – ear can only have auditory stimulus but can’t have visual perception because that’s the work of eyes)
Ans 41: Umami taste receptors are sensitive to glutamate and nucleotides. Taste receptors of umami are on microvilli of taste bud in papillae, which are on the rough side of the tongue
Ans 42: Olfactory receptors cells send their action potentials through openings in the ethmoid bone, and synapse with neurons in the olfactory bulbs.
Ans 43: Glossopharyngeal nerve transmits gustatory nerve impulses from the entire tongue to the brain while vagus nerve is responsible for the regulation of internal organ functions, such as digestion, heart rate, and respiratory rate, as well as vasomotor activity, and certain reflex actions.
Ans 44: Ciliary muscle is an intrinsic muscle of the eye formed as a ring of smooth muscle in the eye’s middle layer. Functions of ciliary muscles are as follow : muscles used to change the shape of the lens in the eye to help with focusing (accommodation). It also help to regulate the flow of aqueous humor in the eye (i.e. produces the fluid in the eye called aqueous humor) Aqueous humor providing most of the nutrients for the lens and the cornea and involved in waste management of these areas. It also controls the flow of aqueous humour into Schlemm’s canal.
Ans 45: lacrimal punctum is the portion of the lacrimal apparatus consists of 2 small pores that drain the tears off of the surface of the eye.
Ans 46: Optic disc lacks photoreceptors (cones and rods) and hence does not get stimulated on receiving light, as a result it is referred to as the blind spot.
Ans 47: The vestibule and the semicircular canals of ear sense the equilibrium. Key function of vestibule and the semicircular canal is the equilibrium maintenance.
Ans 48: Basilar membrane acts as a rigid roof over the cilia of the hair cells of the spiral organ, causing the cilia to bend against it when sound waves are present.
Ans 49: Vestibular neurons transmit nerve impulses along the vestibulocochlear nerve to all of the following sites except
Ans 50: The organs of static and dynamic equilibrium both contain hair cells, with stereocilia embedded in a gelatinous mass is macula.