REPORT ANALYZING THE PERFORMANCE AND OPERATIONS You have been asked to write a report to the board of directors of one of the selected companies below as p

REPORT ANALYZING THE PERFORMANCE AND OPERATIONS You have been asked to write a report to the board of directors of one of the selected companies below as part of the interview process for your first appointment as a Finance Director of a company listed on AIM (which is the Alternative Investment Market for small companies) within the London Stock Exchange (LSE). The board of directors have asked you to write a report about your vision and strategic financial goals for the company.

The companies are within a selected sector of the AIM. Assume that your selected company has ambitions and plans to become a FTSE 100 company (the Main Market for UK listed companies) in the near future (3 to 5 years).

The report should be maximum 2,000 words (+/- 10%). Remember you need to make an impression on the board of directors for you to be considered for the critical post of Finance Director. The essence of this assignment is to test your knowledge and understanding of key accounting and corporate governance concepts, theories and tools and ability to present data in a concise manner. 

* Read the instructions there

* Watch the videos

* The video will refer to other recorded lessons on corporate governance. As this is required in your assignment, pls watch the recorded lessons

* Watch this video on SWOT analysis, which is also required in assignment

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UySPb3bACQY Harvard
Referencing
Guide

Produced by
Library and Learning Services
6

th
Edition, 2016.

2

Harvard Referencing Guide ed 6 2017.rtf 27/09/2017 10:32

Table of Contents

Harvard Referencing Guide ……………………………………………………………….. 1
Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4
What is referencing? ……………………………………………………………………………………. 4

Citing within your work ……………………………………………………………………… 5
Paraphrasing or citing a specific idea…………………………………………………………… 5
Citing an author you have mentioned in your text ………………………………………….. 6
Citing a short quotation ……………………………………………………………………………… 6
Citing a long quotation ………………………………………………………………………………. 6
Citing more than one source ………………………………………………………………………. 7
Citing a source with more than one author ……………………………………………………. 7
Editors ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 8
Same author, same year……………………………………………………………………………. 8
Authors with the same surname in the same year………………………………………….. 9
Corporate Author ……………………………………………………………………………………… 9

References list and bibliography ………………………………………………………. 10
Elements of a reference …………………………………………………………………………… 11
Publication information ……………………………………………………………………………. 12
What do I do if publication details are not given? …………………………………………. 12
What are secondary references? ………………………………………………………………. 13

Example essay extract with citations and references list …………………… 13

Example reference formats for different source types ……………………….. 15
Printed sources and e-books ……………………………………………………………………….. 15

Books …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 15
Chapter in an edited book ………………………………………………………………………… 15
Book volume ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 16
Edited book with no names on chapters …………………………………………………….. 16
Translator details ……………………………………………………………………………………. 17
e-book ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 17
Kindle books or books on eReaders ………………………………………………………….. 18
Legislation …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 18
Government publications …………………………………………………………………………. 19
White/Green papers ………………………………………………………………………………… 19
Journal articles ………………………………………………………………………………………. 19
Electronic journal articles …………………………………………………………………………. 20
Market reports ………………………………………………………………………………………. 21
Newspapers…………………………………………………………………………………………… 21
British standards …………………………………………………………………………………….. 21
Cochrane reviews …………………………………………………………………………………… 22
Conference papers …………………………………………………………………………………. 22
Patents (from an online database) …………………………………………………………….. 23

Visual sources, artworks, diagrams and maps………………………………………………… 23
Artworks held in a gallery, museum, repository, collection or in a locality …………. 23
Artworks documented in an online collection ………………………………………………. 24
Installations and exhibitions ……………………………………………………………………… 24
Book illustrations, diagrams, logos or tables ……………………………………………….. 25
Maps – Ordnance and Geological Survey …………………………………………………… 25
Maps – Digimap ……………………………………………………………………………………… 26
Maps – Online – see Online Sources …………………………………………………………. 26

Websites and online sources ……………………………………………………………………….. 26
Websites ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 26

3

Harvard Referencing Guide ed 6 2017.rtf 27/09/2017 10:32

Blogs ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 27
YouTube ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 27
Wikis …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 27
Online images ………………………………………………………………………………………… 27
Online maps ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 28

Computer games, software codes and apps ………………………………………………….. 28
Downloadable game with developer who is also the publisher ……………………….. 28
App ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 28
An app with distinct developer and publisher details …………………………………….. 29
Software code ………………………………………………………………………………………… 29
Microsoft software code …………………………………………………………………………… 29

Music ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 29
Music tracks …………………………………………………………………………………………… 30
Lyrics ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 30
Musical score …………………………………………………………………………………………. 30

Live performances ……………………………………………………………………………………… 31
Music ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 31
Theatre …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 31
Dance …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 32

Broadcast media/film ………………………………………………………………………………….. 32
DVD/Film (commercial) ……………………………………………………………………………. 32
TV and radio broadcasts ………………………………………………………………………….. 32
Commentaries and special features …………………………………………………………… 33

Unpublished Materials ………………………………………………………………………………… 33
Interviews ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 33
Notes taken by self at lecture ……………………………………………………………………. 34
Lecturer’s/ tutor’s notes …………………………………………………………………………… 34
Letter ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 34
Conversations ………………………………………………………………………………………… 35
Telephone calls ……………………………………………………………………………………… 35
Email ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 36
Theses ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 36

Points to remember ……………………………………………………………………………………. 37
Glossary of terms ………………………………………………………………………………………. 38
References ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 39
Bibliography ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 39

4

Harvard Referencing Guide ed 6 2017.rtf 27/09/2017 10:32

Introduction
There are many different referencing systems, but one of the best-known and most

popular systems is the Harvard system. However, you will find that there are slightly

different versions of the Harvard system in use across universities worldwide. Don’t

panic! This document has been designed to provide you with examples and

guidance on how to use Harvard referencing in a consistent and accurate manner to

refer to information sources used in your work, such as books, journal articles,

websites etc. It is a comprehensive guide, which aims to answer most of your

Harvard referencing questions. Library and Learning Services have also produced a

two page quick start to referencing, ‘The Harvard Referencing – Quick Guide’.

In addition, it is often worth checking with your tutor to see if they have any specific

referencing requirements.

What is referencing?
Referencing is a way of acknowledging other peoples’ ideas and work. You do this

through a citation (in the text of your work) and a reference at the end of your work.

The purpose of referencing is so that anyone reading your work can refer to the

original source to check and verify the ideas presented. You must reference any

source that you use:

 To support an argument, to make a claim or to provide evidence

 To acknowledge other peoples’ ideas or work correctly

 To show evidence of the breadth and depth of your reading

 To avoid plagiarism (i.e. to take other peoples’ thoughts, ideas or writings and

use them as your own)

 To allow the reader of your work to locate the cited references easily, and so

evaluate your interpretation of those ideas

 To avoid losing marks!

5

Harvard Referencing Guide ed 6 2017.rtf 27/09/2017 10:32

Citing within your work

The citation within the text of your work is a brief acknowledgement to a source you

have used for any of the reasons listed above.

If you are using a direct quotation or are referring to a specific idea or assertion by an

author, you need to let your reader know where you found the information by giving

the author/creator’s surname, the year and the page number, e.g. (Surname, Year,

Page). The page number is important, as one of the prime functions of referencing is

to enable your reader to quickly locate the information you have used and to verify

the conclusions you have drawn. By using the page number, your reader can do this

without having to read the entire work (book, journal article etc.,) to which you are

referring, which could be hundreds of pages long!

If you are not referring to a specific idea or assertion, but are referring to a work by

an author in its entirety or to a more general argument you only need to include the

author/creator’s surname and the year, e.g. (Surname, Year).

If you have named the author in the flow of your text, you only need to provide the

year and page number (if applicable), e.g. (Year, Page).

Paraphrasing or citing a specific idea
e.g.1

…Research has shown a direct link between body image and self-esteem

(Jones, 2010, p.4)…

e.g.2

…Jones’ research has shown a direct link between body image and self-

esteem (2010, p.4)…

6

Harvard Referencing Guide ed 6 2017.rtf 27/09/2017 10:32

Citing an author you have mentioned in your text
e.g.1

Terry Eagleton (1983) created an essential guide to literary theory that still

resonates into the twenty first century…

e.g.2

Nikki Gamble has created a set of activities to aid narrative thinking and

investigation (2013, p.70)…

Citing a short quotation

… whilst it is possible that “poor parenting has little effect on primary

educational development it more profoundly affects secondary or higher

educational achievement” (Healey, 2003, p.22).

Citing a long quotation
N.B. There is no need to use quotation marks. Instead start a new line and indent

the quotation.

The methodology required for a thorough literature search requires an understanding

of a number of different sources:

… it is important to be familiar with the tertiary sources (bibliographies of

bibliographies), which will help you to identify the secondary sources (such as

bibliographies, indexes and abstracts), which will then lead you to primary

sources for your review (Pickard, 2013, p.27).

 Remember: it is best to paraphrase the sources you have used in your work,

putting the author’s words into your own and crediting them with the idea through the

citation. Try and keep quotations to a minimum. You do not need to include the page

number from the quotation in your reference list.

7

Harvard Referencing Guide ed 6 2017.rtf 27/09/2017 10:32

If you are taking a quotation from a website you may not be able to find a page

number, so you will need to include an indication of where the quote can be found.

Give a line or screen number instead e.g. use [45 lines] or [approx. 5 screens].

Citing more than one source
If you are citing more than one source, you can separate them with a semi colon.

…There are many factors relating to individuals perceived body image. Jones

(2010, p.4) has suggested that body image is related to self-esteem, others

believe a more complex relationship exists (Philips, 1995; Norton, 2005).

Citing a source with more than one author
Some sources will have a number of authors. If there are two authors, you write

(Surname A and Surname B, Year). If there are more than two authors, you can use

et al. This means ‘and others’, e.g. (Surname et al., Year).

e.g.1 with two authors:

A number of practitioners have tackled the issue teaching information skills in

the university setting (Webb and Powis, 2004)…

e.g. 2 with more than two authors:

…There has been some debate amongst medical practitioners on the issue

(Williamson et al., 2008)…

However, in your reference list you must make sure you give credit to all the authors

(don’t use et al.). Instead, write all of the authors in the order that they appear on

your source as shown below:

8

Harvard Referencing Guide ed 6 2017.rtf 27/09/2017 10:32

Williamson, G. R., Jenkinson, T. and Proctor-Childs, T. (2008) Nursing in
contemporary healthcare practice. Exeter: Learning Matters.

 Remember: et al. should be in italics with a full stop, as it is an abbreviation.

Editors
If you are using a book that has an editor (with no named authors for the different

sections of the book) then you would cite and reference the editor as you would an

author. However, if the book you are referring to has individual authors attributed to

the different chapters then you have to cite and reference the author of the chapter,

rather than the editor.

In the extract below, from the contents page of an edited book, you can see that each

chapter has a different author. Therefore cite and reference the author of the specific

chapter that you are referring to in your work. Full details on how to reference an

edited book are on page 16.

Fig. 1: example of a table of contents from an edited book (Childs et al., 2009, p.v)

Same author, same year
If you are referring to two sources by the same author, produced in the same year,

you can distinguish between them by adding letters to the end of the year for both

your citation and reference.

9

Harvard Referencing Guide ed 6 2017.rtf 27/09/2017 10:32

For example:

Research into the importance of chocolate on individuals’ moods has

highlighted a difference between the cocoa levels of chocolate (Hoskin,

2011a, p.41). This has indicated that the higher the cocoa levels, the greater

impact the chocolate has on mood (Hoskin, 2011b, p.12). However, further

research is investigating how much of this is related to the sugars within the

chocolate (Hoskin and Siddall, 2012, p.21).

Authors with the same surname in the same year
If you are citing two authors with the same surname, who have published in the same

year, you can include their initials to differentiate between them.

For example:

It is important that students develop academic skills as soon as possible

during their HE course (Williams, N., 2013, p.12). Otherwise students are

likely to fall behind as they progress through their course (Williams, E., 2013,

p.30). Therefore academic skills should be embedded in first year courses at

University.

Corporate Author
You may come across a source which has a corporate author, where an

organisation, rather than an individual, is responsible for the work. For instance, a

government organisation would be cited in the same way as an author, with the

organisation name as the author, for example: (Department of Health, 2013).

 Remember:

Some sources are the result of collaboration between a number of contributors, none

of whom can claim authorship, e.g. dictionaries, encyclopaedias or films. In this case

you can use the title in place of the author name, for example: Gone with the Wind.

10

Harvard Referencing Guide ed 6 2017.rtf 27/09/2017 10:32

References list and bibliography

What is the difference between a references list and a bibliography?

References list: is a list of all the sources that you have cited within your work

Bibliography: is a list of everything that you have cited and everything that you have

consulted to help improve your understanding of the topic.

Sometimes people use the terms references list and bibliography interchangeably,

although strictly they are not the same thing. You should check with your tutor to

see if they would prefer to have a references list or a full bibliography. Make

sure that if you have cited something, there is a complete reference to match at the

end of your work.

References must be listed in alphabetical order by the author’s surname or the name

of the creator/company.

 Remember: It is good practice to record the reference information required before

you start reading and making notes on your source. It means you can easily refer

back to the material you need, without having to search for it again.

11

Harvard Referencing Guide ed 6 2017.rtf 27/09/2017 10:32

Elements of a reference
Below are some examples of the type of information that you will need to include in

your reference.

Author An individual or organisation responsible for creating the source.

Year of
publication

The year the source was published, for example the edition year
or the copyright © date on a website.

Title of
article/chapter

When you are referring to a section of a bigger piece of work,
you may need to give the title of the section that you’re looking
at, for example a book chapter.

Publication Title The name of the source, for example book title or journal name.

Place of
publication

Location listed on the source, for example the office address of
the book publisher. This should be a town or city, not a country.
Use the first place listed.

Publisher

Normally a company who has produced the information and
made it publicly available.

Edition or
volume
information

This is to indicate if it is a part of a series or if a source replaces
an earlier copy. A second edition of a book is an update to the
first. For example, it may include more or different information to
the earlier version. A journal will produce a number of issues a
year, so you need to include the volume and issue number to
demonstrate where in the series this source comes from.

Page span

If you are referring to something within a larger piece of work,
you should include the first and last page of that section, for
example of the book chapter.

URL or web
address

If you have accessed something from the internet, you will need
to include the full web address for that information. You can copy
and paste this from your browser bar, into your reference.

 Remember: to note down the complete reference details for any source that you

use, whether it is a book, journal article, website or a source that you have

photocopied.

12

Harvard Referencing Guide ed 6 2017.rtf 27/09/2017 10:32

Publication information

(Bolton, 2010, p.iii)

What do I do if publication details are not given?
Occasionally you will come across documents that lack basic publication details. In

these cases it is necessary to indicate to your reader that these are not available. A

series of abbreviations can be used and are generally accepted for this purpose:

Missing publication details Abbreviation.

author/corporate author not given use [Anon.]

no date use [n.d.]

no place (sine loco) use [s.l.]

no publisher (sine nomine) use [s.n.]

not known use [n.k.]

For web pages it is often necessary to look beyond the page you are referencing to

the ‘Home Page’ for the whole site or at a link such as ‘About Us’ from that home

page. Dates are often given at the bottom of web pages.

1. Author

3. Title

4. Edition

2. Date of
publication

6. Publisher

5. Place of
publication

13

Harvard Referencing Guide ed 6 2017.rtf 27/09/2017 10:32

What are secondary references?
A secondary reference is when you refer to someone cited within another source, i.e.

you have not read the original work. Ideally, you should always try and read the

original source so that you can review the work first hand. If you are not able to

locate the original source, it is acceptable to reference it as a secondary reference,

following the format below.

In text citation example
(Bancroft and Silverman, 2002, cited in Harne and Radford, 2008, p.63)

Reference list example
Harne, L. and Radford, J. (2008) Tackling domestic violence: theories, policies and
practice. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Note: in your references list, you only include details of the sources you have read

and directly consulted.

Example essay extract with citations
and references list
Below is an example essay, complete with citations and references. Please

remember this is a fictional essay purely designed to demonstrate how and when to

reference.

There has been a tendency amongst health workers to diagnose women

experiencing domestic violence with a mental illness, rather than identifying the

distress as a result of violence (Harne and Radford, 2008, p.44). However, progress

has been made in helping the general public to recognise the signs and raise

awareness of the many support networks in the UK (COAP, 2009). Some social work

practitioners have used different techniques to try and change the environment

where domestic violence is prevalent (Gray, 2009).

The education of health practitioners now includes ways of identifying and supporting

victims of domestic violence “the NMC recognizes the importance of community

nurses in supporting families to contact the support services where domestic violence

occurs” (Williamson et al., 2008, p.25).

14

Harvard Referencing Guide ed 6 2017.rtf 27/09/2017 10:32

References
COAP (2009) Children of addicted parents and people. COAP [online]. Available

from: http://www.coap.org.uk/ [Accessed 18th July 2013].

Gray, B. (2009) Befriending excluded families in Tower Hamlets: the emotional

labour of family support workers in cases of child protection and family support.

British Journal of Social Work, 39(6), pp.990-1007.

Harne, L. and Radford, J. (2008) Tackling domestic violence: theories, policies and

practice. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Williamson, G. R., Jenkinson, T. and Proctor-Childs, T. (2008) Nursing in

contemporary healthcare practice. Exeter: Learning Matters.

Bibliography

COAP (2009) Children of addicted parents and people. COAP [online]. Available

from: http://www.coap.org.uk/ [Accessed 18th July 2013].

Gray, B. (2009) Befriending excluded families in Tower Hamlets: the emotional

labour of family support workers in cases of child protection and family support.

British Journal of Social Work, 39(6), pp.990-1007.

Harne, L. and Radford, J. (2008) Tackling domestic violence: theories, policies and

practice. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Hinchliff, S., Norman, S. and Schober, J. (2008) Nursing practice and health care. 5
th

ed. London: Hodder Arnold.

NSPCC (2009) Children talking to ChildLine about parental alcohol drug misuse.

NSPCC [online]. Available from:

http://www.nspcc.org.uk/Inform/publications/casenotes/parental_alcohol_drug_misus

e_wda78113.html [Accessed 17th July 2013].

Williamson, G. R., Jenkinson, T. and Proctor-Childs, T. (2008) Nursing in
contemporary healthcare practice. Exeter: Learning Matters.

15

Harvard Referencing Guide ed 6 2017.rtf 27/09/2017 10:32

Example reference formats for different
source types

Note: in all of the format examples that follow, for simplicity we have demonstrated
each example as if citing an author’s work in its entirety, rather than a specific idea.
Depending on what you are citing or what you have already included within your
written text you may need to also include a page number or just include the year,
e.g.:

(Eagleton, 1983, p.110) or (1983, p.110) or …Eagleton (1983) writes that…

Please refer to the section on citing for detailed guidance.

Printed sources and e-books

Books

Format: in text citation
For continuing professional development nurses must attend regular accredited
training (Surname, Year, Page).

Format: Reference
Author/editor surname, initials. (Year) Title. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher.

Note: You do not include the edition information if it is the first edition.

Example: in text citation
For continuing professional development nurses must attend regular accredited
training (Orem, 2009, p.23).

Example: Reference
Orem, D. E. (2009) Nursing: concepts of practice. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby-Year
Book.

Chapter in an edited book

Format: in text citation
For continuing professional development nurses must attend regular accredited
training (Surname, Year, Page).

Format: reference
Chapter author surname, initials. (Year) Title of chapter. In: Editor’s surname, initials.
(ed.) Title of book. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher, first and last page
numbers.

16

Harvard Referencing Guide ed 6 2017.rtf 27/09/2017 10:32

Example: in text citation
For continuing professional development nurses must attend regular accredited
training (Woolrich, 2009, p.90).

Example: reference
Woolrich, C. (2009) Principles of professional practice. In: Hinchliff, S., Norman, S.
and Schober, J. (eds.) Nursing practice and health care: a foundation text. 5th ed.
London: Hodder Arnold, pp.89-113.

Note: that ‘in’ is used to link the chapter to the book and the use of page numbers.
The year of publication is only given once.

Looking for this or a Similar Assignment? Click below to Place your Order