Replies for peers. Need ONE Response Per Each Discussion Total 4 Responses. Attached Are The Discussions And Rubric Please Follow Them. Posts Will Be A Min

Replies for peers. Need ONE Response Per Each Discussion Total 4 Responses. Attached Are The Discussions And Rubric Please Follow Them. Posts Will Be A Minimum Of 100 Words, APA Format.One Reference Per Each Discussion Adrian Morejon Juiz

Nursing theories help explain the nursing phenomenon. The theories help direct nursing practice during the nursing care process. The nursing theories also bring positive influence in nursing practice and the quality of care. With the ravaging effects of Covid-19, the quality of care needs to be strengthened. Nurses and the general public need to know what to do in Covid-19 to reduce the effects (Haleem, Javaid, & Vaishya, 2020). Everyone needs to feel free to do what is right and create awareness to guide the actions and participation towards the change process (Barrett, 2017).; based on this, Barrett’s Theory of Power as Knowing Participation in Change is the most appropriate for selection to explain the effects of Covid-19.

There are several ways to use Barrett’s power in nursing and specifically during the Covid 19 pandemic. The theory explains how change can be initiated or organized knowingly. The theory of power is based on knowing participation, choices, awareness, freedom to act, and involvement in creating change (Barrett, 2015). 

Covid 19 has created fear, and this has led to unnecessary panic. Using Barrett’s power is necessary for restoring confidence among individuals, families, and nurses affected. The confidence can be corrected through the provision of appropriate information and reliable sources. Covid-19 has led to lost lives, leading to isolation; the theory can initiate change through Covid-19 preventive measures.

According to (Chinn & Falk-Rafael, 2015), to improve quality of care. The selected theory indicates that nurses should be aware of what they need to do. Nurses need to feel free to initiate the change process (Chang et al., 2016; McCaskey & Dunn 2017); for instance, nurses can respond to the adverse effects of Covid-19 by planning and creating public health awareness campaigns in the community. Dispelling fear requires important messages and postures to be put at appropriate and designated areas where people sit or wait for services. 

It is worth noting that without an awareness regarding Covid-19, no change can happen. Assuming since the discovery of the novel coronavirus, there was no public awareness; people who die daily would double. Nurses, health professionals, families, and individuals have to create power that acts as a tool to help them realize their goals. 

Barrett’s power has to be studied in schools and nursing homes to help equip nurses and other health professionals with individual control and group power where health professionals work. In every group, it is possible to use the theory of power as knowing participation in ensuring that everyone uses their power and knowledge to bring change. Once the nurses get the concept of initiating the change process, the knowledge can then be modified and developed to cover a larger group of individuals. The nurses can decide to start a community project that gives free education to community members on Covid- 19, offers to counsel to the bereaved, and offer support and referral services to the victims of gender-based violence (Chinazzi et al., 2020). They can apply the power of freedom in their operation, set their change timeline, and share their experience and insights regarding the change (Macoskey, C., & Dunn, D. J. (2017).


Chinazzi, M., Davis, J. T., Ajelli, M., Gioannini, C., Litvinova, M., Merler, S., … Vespignani, A. (2020). The effect of travel restrictions on the spread of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak. Science, 368(6489), 395–400. doi:10.1126/science.aba9757

Haleem, A., Javaid, M., & Vaishya, R. (2020). Effects of COVID-19 pandemic in daily life. Current Medicine Research and Practice, 10(2), 78–79. doi:10.1016/j.cmrp.2020.03.011

Barrett, E. A. M. (2017). Again, what is nursing science? Nursing Science Quarterly, 30(2), 129-133.

Barrett, E. A. M. (2015). Barrett’s theory of power as knowing participation. In M. C. Smith & M. E. Parker (Eds.), Nursing theories and nursing practice (4th ed.) (pp. 495-508). Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis Company.

Chang, S. J., Kwak, E. Y., Hahm, B. J., Seo, S. H., Lee, D. W., & Jang, S. J. (2016). Effects of a meditation program on nurses’ power and quality of life. Nursing Science Quarterly, 29(3), 227-234.

Chinn, P. L., & Falk‐Rafael, A. (2015). Peace and power: A theory of emancipatory group process. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 47(1), 62-69.

Macoskey, C., & Dunn, D. J. (2017). Essential oils and gastroparesis. Holistic Nursing Practice, 31(6), 393-399.


Barret’s theory of power is knowing participation in change

          According to Barret, power is the ability to participate knowingly like change that characterizes people and their world’s ongoing mutual process. Power has observable, quantifiable proportions such as choices, awareness, the freedom to act deliberately, and participation in creating change. When the covid-19 pandemic struck the entire world, many people died, and others were left with health complications, while countries’ economies suffered from the hostility and a lack of funds (Tuttle, 2019). The Barret theory of power as knowing participation in change has been instrumental in the Covid-19 pandemic.

            People were made aware of the Covid-19 pandemic through the use of awareness creation. When the Covid-19 pandemic struck the entire world, the World Health Organization issued a global alert and made people aware of the disease. The disease is lethal, and a large number of people are dying as a result. The World Health Organization educated people on how to avoid getting sick, avoid traveling, self-quarantine, and eat healthy foods to boost their immunity. Because people were aware of the covid-19 pandemic, some businesses closed, causing the economy to slow and the market to experience poor cash flow. Before the pandemic, there was a shift in how people went about their daily lives. Barrets’ theory of power as knowing participation in change has been applied to raise awareness throughout the world about covid-19.

          The World Health Organization used decision-making to try to control and stop the global covid-19 pandemic. When the Covid-19 pandemic hit the entire world, the health organization decided to keep those infected in private rooms, requiring only specialized doctors to enter while heavily armed with PPEs, to prevent the virus from spreading (Tuttle, 2019). In addition, governments prohibited people from traveling, gathering, attending school, or going to churches to prevent the virus from spreading. Also, the World Health Organization looked for the best vaccine to inject people with to protect them from getting the virus and the medicines people should take if they become infected with the virus. Along with the World Health Organization, governments around the world decided what to do to stop the virus’s spread. Barrets’ theory of power as knowing participation in change has been used to determine what to do to stop the virus’s global reach.

            To control the spread of Covid-19 infections, the World Health Organization, in collaboration with global governments, is involved in finding a solution to stop the spread of Covid-19 diseases. World Health Organizations are collaborating with other governments to find a solution to the spread of the Covid-119 infection (Tuttle, 2019). They are proposing various solutions such as developing a wide range of vaccines to vaccinate people, implementing rules and regulations to be followed, and punishing those who fail to follow those rules. The World Health Organization is funding governments to build covid-19 hospitals by enlisting the help of others. When people become ill, they are taken there to be cared for. When the World Health Organization involves other sectors and governments in finding a solution to the pandemic, change occurs. The Barrets Theory of Power as Knowing Participation in Change has been used to control the spread of the pandemic by involving others.

           The ability to make changes is used to control the rise of Covid-19. When the Covi-19 pandemic hit the entire world, the World Health Organization, countries’ governments, and other health sectors enacted rules and regulations that made it illegal to travel or gather with other people in order to stop the virus’s spread. People were not allowed to travel or meet together, and the government advised them to maintain a social distance. People used to work from home, there were no visitors, a change was made to the way people used to have the freedom of traveling and uniting with others, and now people cannot meet together simply by staying at home (Tuttle, 2019). Barrets’ theory of power as knowing participation in changes has been applied in this case, whereby freedom changes to control virus spread.

 In the Covid-19 pandemic, Barrets’ theory of power as knowing participation in changes has been applied. It is seen that involving others, creating awareness, lack of freedom, and choice has been used to reduce the virus’s spread.



Tuttle, K.R, (2019). Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on clinical research. Nat Rev Nephrol 16,562-564.

Cira N Perez

The theory which I would consider is the theory of unitary caring by Marlaine Smith. It covers caring relationships, transcendence, transformation, and wholeness. The provision of quality care is an important practice to society because nursing forces patient-centered care. The theory assumes that patients, despite the factors such as prejudice, age, and sex, can access help from medical practitioners (Smith& Parker, 2014). Therefore, using the theory is paramount to ensure that each patent receives medical treatment without any form of discrimination. Smith’s theory will enable nurses to develop an action plan which serves the need of patients at all levels. According to (Smith 2019), healthcare requires an integrated care approach that meets the needs of patients.

         The outbreak of Covid 19 has presented healthcare-related to people such as fear, psychological issues, stress, and isolation among the various people in the society. Therefore, the role of health is to ensure that it can cover the needs of people during the Covid 19 through an integrated approach of patients and healthcare workers. Covid 19 affected the daily lives of people as well as economic and social activities (Haleem et al., 2020). The consequences of the quarantine and diagnosis were much of a challenging task for the medical systems. The situation went to the extent that Covid 19 was given more attention than other infections. Moreover, the coronavirus required healthcare workers and scientists to inform the public on how the disease is being transmitted from one individual to another for the patient to know things like isolation, wearing masks, and even getting the Covid vaccine. In this case, the Theory of Unitary caring works excellently to ensure that patients are protected during the pandemic and have equal access to care services without considering their age, gender, and even economic status.




Haleem, A., Javaid, M., & Vaishya, R. (2020). Effects of COVID-19 pandemic in daily life. Current medicine research and practice, 10(2), 78.

Smith, M. & Parker, M. (2014). Nursing Theories and Nursing Practice. (4th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis Company. ISBN-13: 978-0-8036-3312-4.

Smith, M. C. (2019). Nursing theories and nursing practice. FA Davis.

Lissette Salvat

Nursing theories are the most crucial components of the nursing profession. The theories explain the nursing concept, provide a foundation of nursing practice, and comprehensively contribute by offering future guidelines to the nursing profession.Nevertheless, the ultimate goal of nursing theories is to enhance the nursing profession by positively influencing the health and life of patients(Turkel et al., 2018). The existing situation of the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly affected the whole world. Many people have lost their lives and loved ones because of the COVID-19 complications. The pandemic is a wake-up call for the importance of putting nursing theories into practice to enhance patient care. Currently, the Covid-19 pandemic is causing a global headache and panic. Almost all nations globally have been compelled to adopt forced lockdowns and compulsory quarantine to minimize the spreading rate of the virus. Healthcare professionals like nurses and doctors continue to be the frontline fighters in the war against the pandemic by attending to patients who have tested positive for the virus.

After reflecting on the various nursing theories presented. It is apparent that Marline Smith, as a nursing theorist developed the most compelling theory that can be used to care for the patient by healthcare professionals. Marlaine’s Smith theory is commonly referred to as NTUC-Nursing Theory of Unitary Caring, is at the heart of patient care compared to other theories(Ortiz,2021). NTUC provides a conceptual framework that is a critical component of how patients would relate with healthcare service providers, particularly through the challenging periods of the Covid-19 pandemic. Manifesting Intention is one of the primary conceptual principles of NTUC. Marlaine strongly believes that if healthcare service providers can develop and show a positive attitude in their line of duty, they can significantly improve a patient’s condition. Marlaine claims that Nurses are responsible for offering a conducive environment to facilitate patients’ healing (Christopher et al., 2020). The necessary environment can be recognized through their intentions, beliefs, thoughts, and actions. During the pandemic, fears gripped the thoughts of both nurses and patients. The fore, the most effective strategy is to provide quality patient care to eradicate the fear of losing lives due to complications caused by the virus.



Christopher, R., de Tantillo, L., & Watson, J. (2020). Academic caring pedagogy, presence, and Communitas in nursing education during the COVID-19 pandemic. Nursing Outlook, 68(6), 822-829.

Ortiz, M. R. (2021). Best Practices in Patient-Centered Care: Nursing Theory Reflections. Nursing Science Quarterly, 34(3), 322-327.

Turkel, M. C., Watson, J., & Giovannoni, J. (2018). Caring science or science of caring. Nursing Science Quarterly, 31(1), 66-71.

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