Reflection And Learning Write 1-2 paragraphs reflecting on the different theories reviewed this week.  Provide one specific example of how you achieved th

Reflection And Learning Write 1-2 paragraphs reflecting on the different theories reviewed this week. 

Provide one specific example of how you achieved the weekly objectives. What concepts, theories, models, tools, techniques, and resources in this week did you find most valuable? What issues had you not considered before Summary Chapter 18


Although the four nursing models described in this chapter were conceived by four very different nurses whose careers spanned more than a century, they share a common thread: All place emphasis on the function of nursing practice in relation to health outcomes. For Nightingale, the function of nursing is to alter the environment to allow for action on the person by natural laws of health; for Henderson, the function of nursing is to assist the person to perform activities to gain independence; for Johnson, the function of the nurse is to impose external regulatory mechanisms in order to facilitate restoration of system balance; and for Pender, the nurse functions to raise consciousness, promote self-efficacy, and control the environment to allow for behavior change resulting in high-level health. All four of these nursing models also conceptualize the goal of nursing care as a restoration of the health of the patient, however differently the concept of health—or, for that matter, the concept of the patient—may be defined in their respective theories.
Summary chapter 19


This chapter was a review of three conceptual models and one middle-range theory based on a systems approach—the Roy adaptation model, King’s conceptual system, King’s theory of goal attainment, and the Neuman systems model. The models are useful for viewing nursing from different perspectives, such as health promotion, primary prevention, secondary prevention, and tertiary prevention. Roy’s model is focused on adaptation and coping. King provided a conceptual system of interactions and transactions between nurses and clients within three systems—personal, interpersonal, and group. King’s theory of goal attainment—namely an emphasis on mutual goal setting between the nurse and the client—was derived from her conceptual system. Neuman’s model is focused on the wellness of the client in terms of environmental stressors and the client’s reactions to those stressors. The three models are conceptual models, as defined by Fawcett (
), and they provide nurses with a purposive reality and conceptual arrangement for nursing.
Summary Chapter 25


This chapter’s focus is on the C-T-E structures that need to be constructed for systematic theory generation and theory testing. The chapter also presented a discussion of criteria used to evaluate C-T-E structures. These go beyond the norm for theory evaluation theories by including criteria to evaluate conceptual models and empirical indicators.

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