Around 6 pages.
Find the articles and do the annnoated bibliography
due in 12 hours
Find 10 academic journal papers hat relate to concepts you found interesting in the TOPIC B Design Resilience lecture; expect to view the abstracts of many papers in order to select 10 that have relevance to academic thought around your area of interest within the field.
Reference the selected papers in Harvard format.
Design Resilience, Woke Awareness & the changing landscape of Consumer wants and needs
Presented Vanessa Northway
Supported with considerable thanks
by Dr Elaine Ritch, Dr Britta Kalkreuter & Cath Clark
You will be undertaking reading & research that will review heritage, circular economy, handicrafts, sustainability, and a great deal more (!) and you will probably read a great deal that looks specifically at the design of the product, how its made and the challenges therein as to how designers can utilise artisans & responsible techniques in manufacturing/make to develop products for society and consumer
Todays lecture looks at the “why we buy” and how brands are redirecting their focus to a new landscape of wants & needs from consumers within woke consumerism and design resilience
What is Design Resilience?
Sustainability has become a much-debated topic with prominence being placed on environmental (and economic) issues. Of late, social and human concerns (e.g., health, equality, and human rights) are becoming more prevalent (McMahon and Bhamra, 2015; Lopes and Gill, 2015).
Designers addressing sustainability, obviously, need to simultaneously consider environmental, economic and social aspects. However, from a research perspective, a narrower focus is often necessary to gain an in-depth understanding of specific issues.
The design process focus is about having a strong user focus in the design processes. This may involve giving extensive attention to user needs, wants, and limitations at each stage of the design process in order to design products that fit users better and, thus, are more likely to create emotional attachment — i.e., ‘user-centred design’ (or ‘human-centred design’) (Sanders and Stappers, 2008).
Another possibility is to involve users in the design process, which, besides implying more personalised products, may also promote attachment to the product, because the user has been involved of the design process. Terms used to describe such approaches include ‘participatory design’, ‘co-creation’, and ‘co-design’ (Sanders and Stappers, 2008).
The term ‘resilience’ has been applied in a wide variety of disciplines, not least ecology (e.g., climate and soil), social sciences (e.g., psychology end organisation theory), and engineering (e.g., materials science and construction) (Gallopin, 2006).
Also, in recent years, the term has also been widely used in relation to urban development (e.g., the Rockefeller Foundation-led ‘100 Resilient Cities’ initiative) where it is quickly supplanting the concept of sustainable development (Fleming, 2016).
However, as a result of applying the term across different fields, various understandings and uses of the term have emerged (Gunderson and Holling, 2002; Gallopin, 2006).
The term ‘resilience’ has its origins in the disciplines of physics and mathematics, where it was used to describe the capacity of a material or system to return to equilibrium after some sort of disturbance (Norris et al., 2008, 128). Another field in which the term has been widely applied, as mentioned, is ecology, for example, in reference to ‘ecosystem resilience’ (Gunderson and Holling, 2002).
Lets first look at the basic steps involved in producing any product
Historically, the success of the product is based on sales, revenue & profit!
Todays society and consumers demand a far higher VALUE to the products that they choose to purchase
Consumer Behaviour – customer needs & wants
So, traditionally how do we divide groups of people/consumers to examine their behavior to purchasing?
In the pre-connectivity era, an individual customer determined his or her own attitude towards a brand
In the era of connectivity, a new customer path must be defined to accommodate changes shaped by connectivity
In the connectivity era, the initial appeal of a brand is influenced by the community surrounding the customer to determine the final attitude
Basic Market Segmentation
Brand loyalty, Extent of usage, Usage situation, Benefits desired, Values
Region, Country differences
Self-concept, Personality, Lifestyle
Age, Gender, Social Class, Occupation, Income, Ethnic Group, Religion, Stage in Life, Purchaser vs User
Retail Personality Traits of our consumers – (not necessarily age or life stage related)
Seekers want individuality, self-discovery, display, and action. They actively seek self-gratification, excitement, experimentation, and sociability.
Constraineds prefer to try to hold on to the familiar and the past. Their world consists of immediate family and a few friends, who reinforce rather than challenge or renew their opinions and ideas.”
Pragmatics like to play safe. They dislike standing out from their peer group and have a relatively low attachment to any particular lifestyle.
What is Woke Awareness?
What is Woke awareness?
Woke is now defined in this dictionary as “aware of and actively attentive to important facts and issues (especially issues of racial and social justice),” and identified as U.S. slang. It originated in African American English and gained more widespread use beginning in 2014 as part of the Black Lives Matter movement. By the end of that same decade it was also being applied by some as a general pejorative for anyone who is or appears to be politically left-leaning.
The word woke became entwined with the Black Lives Matter movement; instead of just being a word that signaled awareness of injustice or racial tension, it became a word of action. Activists were woke and called on others to stay woke. … customer experience, consumer attitudes, branding, or creativity, for example.
Woke awareness now extends into deeper Values and Lifestyles (VALS)
We choose many products that we think are similar to our personalities and provide symbolism for our beliefs and morals that we have ’many selves’ and therefore need a different set of products as props to play each role and to define our political agenda to the world, supporting key areas of our own lives
Affects consumers’ product/brand preferences and purchase intentions (Erickson, 1996; Jamal & Goode, 2001; Mehta, 1999)
Facilitates positive behaviour and attitudes towards brands
Positively related to consumers’ product evaluations (Sirgy, 1982; Sirgy et al., 1997)
They use products to demonstrate their self image to themselves (Belk, 1988; Wallendorf & Arnould, 1988)
Purchase and consumption are vehicles of self-expression
The result is self image congruity
Woke branding looks at the 2 way street utilising social media that relies on co-creation support of brands but consumers can also call-out brands who potentially do not live the values that the promote themselves to be part of
An example of this may be a company who promotes diversity and utilises diverse models within their campaigns but doesn’t always replicate this within the workplace or structure of their organisation
This can be noted as “Woke Washing” – pretending to be supporting a campaign but not adhering to the values
What are consumers considering now?
Increased “wokeness” impact on the consumer selection and the way in which they select their different products across the buying landscape
Sustainability is infused now within society
Social media helps to create brand communities across globally and consumers are able to connect with like minded groups across the world
Consumers are more woke to issues across the globe and can share their concerns such as climate change, extreme weather, fires, and pandemic concerns as well as voicing concerns, mindsets or distress onto this global platform
Other areas of work awareness include human trafficking debates , mental health, gender inequality, state of the refugee situation
Our concerns as individuals and groups has infiltrated into wider society due to social media with messages spreading faster around the world, enabling us individuals to connect with ours geographically, culturally and politically to share our views in “community” groups
Brands are viewing and researching these voices & values and considering how they can reflect and adjust their product/services offering to meet the needs of the changing consumer landscape.
Brands will monopolise the impact & force of these community voices for their own campaigns & encourage consumers to “get behind them”
Boycotting of products by consumers
Buycotting of Products of consumers
Whilst consumers tend to wish to choose to buy products that match their values and lifestyles, there are still a vast number of consumers whose income may not allow them to constantly have that choice
Consumers are still subject to the basic 4P’s – Place, Product, Place & Promotion used by all marketers to ensure highest visibility of their products/services within the marketplace
Brands have adapted to the new era of consumers wants & needs by promoting “transparency” of their logistics, sourcing, ethical values, charitable support and Corporate responsibility
Woke consumerism molds the society in which we wish to live in and echo’s our political stances, concerns for the planet and can be used as self-branding tool to let society who we are and what we stand for – almost akin to a personal brand or impact statement or can signify a “vote” for a particular ideology
Collective groups coming together via a purchase or non-purchase of a specific product or brand that supports the community’s beliefs system
Brands are fully aware of these beliefs and ethos’ and are redefining their own brand identity to work alongside consumers for a mutual benefit. Brands have been accused of capitalizing rather than showing entrepreneurship & innovation within this relationship whilst building the new landscape partnership
Identifying Trends for Consumer planning
What trends were predicted for 2019 – where they right?
The following slides look at predictions made ahead of 2019 and what we believed or thought consumers would be moving forward with in terms of lifestyle changes and new demands
Where are we now? Let’s reflect on predictions and discuss
Responsible consumerism comes around
Responsible consumerism was predicated to come to the mainstream in 2019. With the growing ease of buying goods, consumers were expected to seek out brands that help them make better, more responsible choices
Taking the lead in responsible consumerism are companies such as Ikea who challenges its customers to become instigators of social change and Nike, that is aligning with its customers’ social issues and environmental concerns.
“There’s an urgent need to shift from sustainable to a regenerative mindset, going beyond simply mitigating negatives to finding wholly positive ways of existing,”
We are what they eat
In food, healthy eating was predicted was predicated to come to the forefront. Healthy eating means abandoning factory-made food and buying closer to home. Community-sourced agriculture (CSA) is a trend we have heard more about since 2019
“Consumers are more interested in food as preventative medicine because they realise their diet is a big component of their health so there’s an increase desire to know what they are eating,”
Safe at home
The cocooning trend was predicated to have a 21st century twist as the uncertainties of contemporary life drive people back home into “comfort-first sanctuaries that can provide respite from an increasingly uncertain world”
Inside the home, safety in the form of healthier indoor environments is key moving on from 2019. Sensitive lighting that enhances energy and sleep, indoor noise control and improved air quality are all on the agenda. Personal safety was predicted to increase within the home
People will turn to nature. “We’re seeing more interest in using plants to create a sense of peace indoors.”
Digital and physical shopping converge
Online and physical retail willmeet in the middle in 2019. “Just as brick-and-mortar shops are scrambling to meet the demand for convenience, digital retailers are opening physical spaces too”. Shoppers still want the benefits of touching, feeling and experiencing shopping in the real-world, even while digital appeals for its greater access and convenience.
“Phygital retail” is the term that Bob Phibbs, the Retail Doctor, gives it. He further predicted, “We will see a tipping point in 2019 when people realise the wastefulness of shopping online, which may lead to a renaissance for brick-and-mortar stores.”
Gen Z were born @ 1996, and they’re up to 24 years old. Millennials, predominantly aged 20- to a 40, so born approx 1980 to 2000.
“They’re looking beyond tangible products and actually trying to understand what is it that makes the company tick. What’s its mission? What’s its purpose? And what is it actually trying to build for us as a society?”
– Bo Finneman, 2020 , (Meet gen z article)
Enjoy your learning & discovery!
Be Wagamama – Employer Branding case study (pdf in learning materials)
Magids, S et al (2015) ‘The New Science of Customer Emotions’, Harvard business review. Boston: Harvard Business Review.
McKinsey (2020) Meet Generation Z: shaping the future of shopping. Podcast https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/consumer-packaged-goods/our-insights/meet-generation-z-shaping-the-future-of-shopping (accessed 11.01.2021)
References and further reading potential
Quintelier, E. 2014. The inﬂuence of the Big 5 personality traits on young people’s poliGcal consumer behavior.
Young Consumers. Available from: h:ps://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/34591713.pdf [Accessed 14 November 2019]
Schröder, M.J.A. and McEachern, M.G. 2004. Consumer value conﬂicts surrounding ethical food purchase decisions: a focus on animal welfare. InternaHonal Journal of Consumer Studies. 28(2), March, pp. 168 –177.
Shaw, D., Newholm, T. and Dickinson, R. 2006. ConsumpGon as voGng: an exploraGon of consumer empowerment. European Journal of MarkeHng. 40 (9/10), pp. 1049–1067.
Steele, S. and Sarcevic, L. 2020. Beware of where you buy your face mask: it may be tainted with modern day slavery. The ConversaGon. Available from: h:ps://theconversaGon.com/beware-of-where-you-buy-your-face- mask-it-may-be-tainted-with-modern-day-slavery-142672 [Accessed 26 November 2020]
Williams, S., Taylor, J. and Howard, M. 2005. The Ethical Consumerism Report 2005. UK: The Co-operaGve Bank
Zoellner, T. 2020. How one woman pulled oﬀ the ﬁrst consumer boyco: – and helped inspire the BriGsh to abolish slavery. The ConversaGon. Available from: h:ps://theconversaGon.com/how-one-woman-pulled-oﬀ-the-ﬁrst- consumer-boyco:-and-helped-inspire-the-briGsh-to-abolish-slavery-140313 [Accessed 26 November 2020]
Baiasu, S. 2020. Why fairness matters more than equality – three ways to think philosophically about justice. The Conversation. Available from: https://theconversation.com/why-fairness-matters-more-than-equality-three-ways- to-think-philosophically-about-justice-140954 [Accessed 26 November 2020]
Boulstridge, E. and Carrigan, M. 2000. Do consumers really care about corporate responsibility? Highlighting the attitude-behaviour gap. Journal of Communication Management. 4(4), pp. 355–368.
Conlon, S. 2019. Latest Gucci show wades into debate on US abortion bans. The Guardian. Available from: https://www.theguardian.com/fashion/2019/may/29/latest-gucci-show-wades-into-debate-on-us-abortion-bans- alessandro-michele [Accessed 13 November 2019]
Crilley, R. and Saunders, R.A. 2019. A urinal in a Scottish pub reveals why toilets matter in international politics. The Conversation. Available from: https://theconversation.com/a-urinal-in-a-scottish-pub-reveals-why-toilets- matter-in-international-politics-118312 [Accessed 13 November 2019]
Gabriel, Y. and Lang, T. 1995. The unmanageable consumer. Contemporary consumption and its fragmentation. London: Sage Publications.
Giddens, A. 1991. Modernity and self-identity. Self and society in the late modern age. Stanford University Press: Stanford.
Jenson, H.R. 2004. What does political consumerism mean for marketers? In: (Ed) Boström, M. In: Political Consumerism: Its Motivations, Power, and Conditions in the Nordic Countries and Elsewhere : Proceedings from the 2nd International Seminar on Political Consumerism, Oslo August 26-29, 2004.
Kotzur, P.F., Torres, C.V., Kedzior, K.K. and Boehnke, K. 2017. Political consumer behaviour among university students in Brazil and Germany: The role of contextual features and core political values. International Journal of Psychology, 52(2), pp 126-135.
Lord, N. 2017. Tax avoidance might be legal but its time we seriously questioned the ethics. The Conversation. Available from: https://theconversation.com/tax-avoidance-might-be-legal-but-its-time-we-seriously-questioned- its-ethics-87133 [Accessed 12 November 2017]
Micheletti, M. 2003. Political Virtue and Shopping: Individuals, Consumerism and Collective Action. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Muncy, J. A., and Vitell, S. J. 1992. Consumer ethics: An investigation of the ethical beliefs of the final consumer. Journal of Business Research, 24(4), 297-311. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0148-2963(92)90036-B
Peck, T. 2017. Betting com panies top the list of donations to MPs. The Independent. Available from: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/betting-companies-ladbrokes-corals-fixed-odds-betting- terminals-philip-davies-top-list-of-donations-a7925461.html [Accessed 14 November 2019]