R language part 1 There are various languages, some are better for data visualization than others. Please review the basics of Python, SAS, R, and SQL. W

R language part 1

There are various languages, some are better for data visualization than others.  Please review the basics of Python, SAS, R, and SQL.  What are the qualities of each language regarding data visualization (select at least two to compare and contrast)?  What are the pros and cons of each regarding data visualization (select at least two to compare and contrast)?

Reply post:

When replying to peers, note your opinion on their thoughts.  Add your thoughts and continue the conversation regarding the languages (Python, SAS, R, and SQL) and other visualization tools as well.

* Corresponding author: top1977@ya.ru

Automation of visualization process for organizational and
technological design solutions

Sergei Sinenko1, Tatiana Poznakhirko1,*, and Vyacheslav Obodnikov1

1Department of Technologies and Organizations of Construction Operations, Institute of Construction and Architecture, State
University of Civil Engineering, Federal State Budget Educational Institution of Higher Education, Moscow, Russian Federation

Abstract. This article studies modern software packages used in drawing construction master
plans and their elements. A special emphasis is placed on increasing the level of design works,
improving their quality, and expanding the community of technically unskilled users. The article
describes approaches to solving the task of visualization of organizational and technological
solutions and gives a comparative analysis thereof. It presents a visualization diagram of an
organizational and technological solution for the construction of a building. It also highlights the
most promising direction in graphic modeling of a construction process for buildings and
structures with visualization seen as the most objective solution to address the assigned task.

1 Introduction

The quality and cost of an engineering, construction or
production project depend, to a large extent, on which
design technology it uses. In days gone by, all technical
documentation used to be developed manually on
drawing boards. At present, with personal computers
commonly used by designers and process engineers, any
project is unthinkable without computer-aided design
(CAD) systems.
This country saw the appearance of such systems as a
“progressive tool of acceleration of the work of designer
bureaus” in the early 1980s in the aviation industry.
Even though the first attempts did not bring the expected
results, they gave impetus to R&D work in this direction.
While at first the main task of CAD was to develop
external surfaces of machines and machine tools and
make strength calculations, soon afterwards these
systems “learned” to compute various types of diagrams,
make architectural and construction drawings, create
legends and indicate dimensions, and even produce full-
fledged drawings in line with applicable industry
standards.

Application of CAD boosts the performance of a
designer or a process engineer two- or three-folds, and
raises the efficiency of interaction between various
subdivisions and the level and quality of design and
engineering works. Moreover, CAD provides means for
reducing the duration of fitting-out operations, relieving
designers from the need to perform non-productive
works, reducing the number of employees, expanding
the possibilities of designing and manufacturing
sophisticated equipment, as well as establishing an

integrated and unified design and technology database of
a business. A distinguishing feature of such systems is
constant improvement – year by year the functionality of
these systems and working speeds of designers/engineers
keep steadily growing, therefore number of working
specialists is being reduced. All these factors, in turn,
produce a favorable impact on a business’s financial
stance.

The remarkable progress of computing engineering
and its sweeping development in the last decades has
proven an exceptional role of computers, which, on the
one hand, act as a support tool for the design process,
and, on the other hand, as an intermediary that
drastically boosts the efficiency of human intellectual
activities.

Finally, it became possible to use the virtual reality
technology as a forming environment. The idea of online
design came into being as a result of analysis of the use
of virtual technologies as a tool of visualization of
design solutions on the organization and technologies of
construction operations [1]. It is based on complete
immersion of a construction engineer in the environment
being designed. The engineer finds himself inside the
designed space, determines the direction of changes, and
implements all these changes interactively by moving
forms in a virtual space. The implementation of the
“online design” idea is supported by a large number of
virtual reality research. An example of such “immersion”
is shown on Figure 1.

MATEC Web of Conferences 270, 05008 (2019) https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/201927005008
ConCERN-2 2018

© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution
License 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

Fig. 1. Master plan of a construction project

2 Methods, findings and discussion

Organizational and technological documentation of a
Construction Organization Design and a Works
Performance Design is known to include a Construction
Master Plan, or a site layout plan that depicts the
location of permanent buildings and structures,
temporary mobile buildings and structures, permanent
and temporary railways and automobile roads, utilities,
warehouses, building cranes and mechanized units,
production base facilities, as well as existing buildings
and those subject to demolition.

Up-to-date software packages “Gektor-Constructor”
(automated workstation “Works Performance Design”,
automated workstation “Construction Organization
Design”, etc.), NanoCAD, “Constructor” and others
ensure improved development of construction master
plans.

The main rationalization principles in the
development of organizational and technological
documentation are maximum reduction of manual work
of designers, improving labor efficiency in design
organizations, decreasing the duration of design
operations and raising the quality of design
documentation. Improvement tools to be employed in
this process include software and hardware packages
based on the use of computers, peripheral devices,
reprographics and office automation equipment that
allow for combining a technological process and
document reproduction into a single system [3].

The main prerequisite for rationalization is the use of
surface modeling and document templates, electrostatic
devices for reproducing originals, microfilms of enlarged
copies of documents, as well as aperture cards as a tool
ensuring automation of document copying and storing
processes.

Software package “Gektor: Construction Designer”
offers up-to-date development technologies for all
sections of Construction Organization Designs and
Works Performance Designs, including construction
master plans.

One of the current trends in computer graphics
development is photorealistic computer-modelled
imaging [1].

This is vital for computer-aided designing, the
motion picture industry, advertising, commercial design,

computer games, etc. An improved quality of computer
graphics products is an increasingly common
requirement in practical operations, and the user demand
for realistic 3D images is continually growing [2].

Expansion of computing capacities offers solutions to
progressively challenging tasks of 3D scene visualization
(number of objects, sources of illumination, image
resolution); however, it is outpaced by increasing
complexity of these tasks.

There are two main approaches to 3D model
visualization:
• Generation of pseudo 3D samples to be

subsequently processed according to 2D graphics
principles, with limited use of the simplest 3D laws;

• Generation of a 3D world model to be subsequently
projected on a flat screen. This is how all modern
3D games are produced.

2.1 Animation

Animation is a complex process of frame-by-frame
arrangement of objects of a construction master plan and
adjusting the path of their motion and interaction with
the other elements of the 3D model, a process that
requires attention to particulars. Depending on the
computer’s capacity, the animation and visualization
quality can vary from photorealistic to a schematic
display of capabilities of the software package.

Consideration should be given to what is expected at
the end of the animation process. It means that the
duration of a completed animated product must
necessarily be calculated. Preference should be given to
advance computations before the animation goes to
rendering, because the latter is an extremely long
process.

It is a common practice, for computer time and
workstation resources saving purposes, to use video
editors and to edit completed video files by stretching
frames thus slowing down the motion of objects. This
approach has both strong and weak points. Its strong
point is saving time and resources; its weak point is the
resulting video. The required number of frames is not
calculated in advance, and the editor has nothing to fill
in the gaps between the frames. The outcome is a jagged
and jumpy video. It is perfectly clear that a smooth and
nice video is much more pleasing both for an external
viewer and the interested party.

In view of all the above, it can be concluded that
generation of any animation should start with
computation of time and the number of frames. Thus, for
a five-minute animation, it should be taken into account
that the optimal number of frames per second is 30. By
way of simple arithmetic calculations, we get the final
number of frames equal to 9,000. Computation of each
frame by an up-to-date computer takes some 30-33
seconds. Therefore, generation of a 9,000-frame video
requires some 75 hours.

Visualization of the construction process of an
industrial building should be performed in reversed
order. It means that the animated building should be
dismantled, rather than constructed. This is a correct

2

MATEC Web of Conferences 270, 05008 (2019) https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/201927005008
ConCERN-2 2018

Fig. 1. Master plan of a construction project

2 Methods, findings and discussion

Organizational and technological documentation of a
Construction Organization Design and a Works
Performance Design is known to include a Construction
Master Plan, or a site layout plan that depicts the
location of permanent buildings and structures,
temporary mobile buildings and structures, permanent
and temporary railways and automobile roads, utilities,
warehouses, building cranes and mechanized units,
production base facilities, as well as existing buildings
and those subject to demolition.

Up-to-date software packages “Gektor-Constructor”
(automated workstation “Works Performance Design”,
automated workstation “Construction Organization
Design”, etc.), NanoCAD, “Constructor” and others
ensure improved development of construction master
plans.

The main rationalization principles in the
development of organizational and technological
documentation are maximum reduction of manual work
of designers, improving labor efficiency in design
organizations, decreasing the duration of design
operations and raising the quality of design
documentation. Improvement tools to be employed in
this process include software and hardware packages
based on the use of computers, peripheral devices,
reprographics and office automation equipment that
allow for combining a technological process and
document reproduction into a single system [3].

The main prerequisite for rationalization is the use of
surface modeling and document templates, electrostatic
devices for reproducing originals, microfilms of enlarged
copies of documents, as well as aperture cards as a tool
ensuring automation of document copying and storing
processes.

Software package “Gektor: Construction Designer”
offers up-to-date development technologies for all
sections of Construction Organization Designs and
Works Performance Designs, including construction
master plans.

One of the current trends in computer graphics
development is photorealistic computer-modelled
imaging [1].

This is vital for computer-aided designing, the
motion picture industry, advertising, commercial design,

computer games, etc. An improved quality of computer
graphics products is an increasingly common
requirement in practical operations, and the user demand
for realistic 3D images is continually growing [2].

Expansion of computing capacities offers solutions to
progressively challenging tasks of 3D scene visualization
(number of objects, sources of illumination, image
resolution); however, it is outpaced by increasing
complexity of these tasks.

There are two main approaches to 3D model
visualization:
• Generation of pseudo 3D samples to be

subsequently processed according to 2D graphics
principles, with limited use of the simplest 3D laws;

• Generation of a 3D world model to be subsequently
projected on a flat screen. This is how all modern
3D games are produced.

2.1 Animation

Animation is a complex process of frame-by-frame
arrangement of objects of a construction master plan and
adjusting the path of their motion and interaction with
the other elements of the 3D model, a process that
requires attention to particulars. Depending on the
computer’s capacity, the animation and visualization
quality can vary from photorealistic to a schematic
display of capabilities of the software package.

Consideration should be given to what is expected at
the end of the animation process. It means that the
duration of a completed animated product must
necessarily be calculated. Preference should be given to
advance computations before the animation goes to
rendering, because the latter is an extremely long
process.

It is a common practice, for computer time and
workstation resources saving purposes, to use video
editors and to edit completed video files by stretching
frames thus slowing down the motion of objects. This
approach has both strong and weak points. Its strong
point is saving time and resources; its weak point is the
resulting video. The required number of frames is not
calculated in advance, and the editor has nothing to fill
in the gaps between the frames. The outcome is a jagged
and jumpy video. It is perfectly clear that a smooth and
nice video is much more pleasing both for an external
viewer and the interested party.

In view of all the above, it can be concluded that
generation of any animation should start with
computation of time and the number of frames. Thus, for
a five-minute animation, it should be taken into account
that the optimal number of frames per second is 30. By
way of simple arithmetic calculations, we get the final
number of frames equal to 9,000. Computation of each
frame by an up-to-date computer takes some 30-33
seconds. Therefore, generation of a 9,000-frame video
requires some 75 hours.

Visualization of the construction process of an
industrial building should be performed in reversed
order. It means that the animated building should be
dismantled, rather than constructed. This is a correct

approach to visualization of a construction process. It
makes it possible to avoid piling-up of objects and,
importantly, to reflect the construction process properly.

A factor of no small significance that should be borne
in mind is the computing capacity of the computer. For
the purpose of saving computer resources in
computations, a camera is created in the 3D model that
will limit the computation of the final image (Figure 2).
Thus rendering of invisible sections of the created model
can be avoided, and the whole of the computer’s useful
capacity can be involved in the computation of the
required image.

Fig. 2. Master plan, creating in 3ds max.

The camera is also an object of the 3D model and has

its own space coordinates. Having set the coordinates of
the camera’s frame-by-frame motion, we get an
animation that depicts the existing situation. Such
animations are generally used at the beginning and at the
end of a video as a visual demonstration of the difference
between the opening and ending frames.

There is no single construction master plan drawn up
without layout and computation of the utilized
construction machines. It is also required in animation,
as the construction process of a building cannot be
realistically represented if construction machines are not
taken into account.

An important stage in the animation process is frame-
by-frame arrangement of objects of interaction with the
building’s model. An interval of appearance of each
object and each part of the model should be specified for
exact time. For example, the first object is a roller that
rolls a road leading to the building. It is assigned a path
of motion, and disappearance of the section of the road
associated with the roller is adjusted in the ending frame.
Thus, following the processing and inversion of visual
imagery of the video file, an effect of laying an access
road to the industrial building is achieved.

This technology is among the first steps in the
improvement of the designing process for construction
master plans.

One of the current trends in computer graphics
development is photorealistic computer-modelled
imaging.

Expansion of computing capacities offers solutions to
progressively challenging tasks of 3D scene visualization
(number of objects, sources of illumination, image

resolution); however, it is outpaced by increasing
complexity of these tasks.

The most widely used 3D modeling technique now is
partial rearrangement of basic vector graphics. Its idea is
as follows: all 3D models (of which, in the final account,
the virtual world is composed) are represented as a
certain number of intersecting plates. Excessive parts of
the plates are cut off. The resulting products are 2D
polygons placed in a 3D coordinate system.

One of the main trends in the development of
computer-aided graphics is physically accurate modeling
of light dissemination in various environments.

According to the outcome indicator, it has been
ascertained that the software environment for virtual
reality implementation in the construction master plan of
the project is Autodesk 3ds Max.

This 3D modeling software package that has been
developing since as early as the 1990s and has already
reached a certain level of perfection. This is confirmed
by its current popularity in the blossoming industries of
movie-making, TV and computer games. Strikingly
realistic 3D special effects on TV screens, stupendously
lifelike virtual reality of 3D computer worlds, as well as
numerous high-quality architectural and design projects
implemented with the use of 3d Max have become
ingrained and occupied a prominent place in our
everyday lives [2,3,4].

It is worth noting that usually whole general
construction plan is divided in parts and over every part
is operated by a single engineer, designer or architect.
This is significantly simplifying the work of specialists
and increasing the whole stability of the software – it
doesn’t end the session prematurely, if the user doesn’t
want that to happen.

General construction plan is divided by individual
files, for instance, in one single file a specialist draws
buildings, in another – mechanisms and in the third one
– roads and vegetation. All these files are attached to the
general file, in which the separated elements of master
plan are collected into one like puzzles. While specialists
are working, not only their respective files are being
updated but also the general file is updated with all the
changes in real time.

Generation of a 3D model of a construction site.
Modeling usually accounts for 50% to 80% of the whole
work process. It is important to realize that the time
consumed by modeling depends primarily on complexity
of the situation on the site, and the building or the
premises, rather than their dimensions. Model mapping
time depends on complexity and diversity of the
materials. Mapping a one-story industrial building is
much easier and faster than a small cottage with various
kinds of stone and facing bricks.

Visualization implies adjustment of lighting,
environment and materials. At this stage, the computer
model gets a photorealistic and presentable appearance,
and the image quality is determined. This stage can
account for 10% to 50% of the whole work process. The
visualization quality depends directly on the experience
and skills of the designer.

Working with light in 3ds max is implemented
through the render-software «V-ray» – it counts behavior

3

MATEC Web of Conferences 270, 05008 (2019) https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/201927005008
ConCERN-2 2018

of rays from sources of light on the surface of models
and elements in the best way. Also such processing adds
realism to finished 3D-models due to the generation of
volumetric effect, the lights and darks of a picture and
also reflections on the surfaces of different subjects.

The main cost elements of visualization are the scope
and quality of work. A construction master plan
developed in a usual format contains all required
attributes. When the drawing is elevated, it is important
to know how many and which aspects of the building
should be reflected. This component has an impact on
the time and quality of the reflected virtual reality. The
color composition includes information on finishing
materials and their coloring. It contains details of all
basic elements from the pedestal to the roof and photos
of material samples.

The resulting images may be of mixed quality. It is
important to take into account the workstation resources.
Working on an average power personal computer, entails
the sacrifice of quality in animation or the decrease in
number of viewpoints, which can be used to follow the
course of animated models or to examine the whole
general construction plan. If the process of visualization
and subsequently that of animation are implemented on a
so-called render farm, the outgoing quality of the image
should not be downgraded. Using a standard computer
means compromising on the animation quality, as the
computer is simply unable to compute so many objects.

Computer-aided graphics make it possible to
generate 3D virtual models of architectural projects of
any degree of complexity and organization. 3D
visualization is an important tool of attracting investment
for a construction project, as the investor is shown not
only unemotional calculations and engineering drawings,
but also a vivid image of the future building. It is
sometimes very difficult to describe a project concept
using only traditional instruments such as drawings,
sketches or photos of similar projects.

For a 3D object to be displayed on the screen online,
it should be first presented in a dot form in a 3D
coordinate system with each displayed dot having х, у
and z coordinates. Each object’s dots that determine its
location in space are stored in the system memory. In
order to display an object on a 2D screen, it should be
visualized.

Simple exterior scenes can be generated using
“templates” available in 3ds Max starting from its 6th
version. Since the whole model is designed for
animating the process of construction of an industrial
building, all elements of the building are generated
separately and combined into groups.

Technological process visualization is a way of
displaying information about the state of technological
equipment and technological process parameters on a
computer monitor or an operator panel in an industrial
automatic control system that also provides for graphic
means of technological process control. The display
system is based on a mnemonic diagram of the
technological process, a static image that shows in
visually simple and user-friendly elements of equipment,
possibly, materials being processed and products, as well
as their interaction and processing procedure. The static

mnemonic diagram is animated reflecting the actual
condition of the equipment and raw materials.

3 Building data acquisition for master
plans

In most cases the construction is proceeding in the built
up area. In order to demonstrate already existing
buildings on the general construction plan, we can use
the different methods of getting information about urban
development in a given region.

Building models can be systematically derived by a
wide range of techniques for acquisition, classification,
and analysis of urban data derived from, for example,
laser scans, aerial photography, and cadaster information
bases. The initial creation is a technically challenging
and economically cost-intensive task.

For more detailed buildings semi-automatic
techniques of photogrammetry [8] are used or they are
constructed by CAD or 3D modeling tools. The resulting
buildings are represented, in general, using formats of
3D computer graphics (e.g., VRML or 3DS from Studio
Max) because these models are supposed to be finalized
by 3D graphics design applications, extending models by
indoor and room features. Most notably buildings
represented this way do not preserve semantics of
building parts (e.g., classification of geometry parts in
terms of architecture such as doors, windows, roofs,
walls, staircases, etc.) unless special conventions are
adopted.

Independently, procedural techniques for creating
virtual 3D city models have emerged in the scope of
computer graphics, intended for research, simulation,
and educational purposes. In particular, specific markets
such as the movie and game industry have a high
demand for a cost and time-efficient creation of realistic,
complex urban environments. Their representation,
however, is tightly linked to and optimized for a specific
visualization system. [5]

Parish and Müller [6] present a system that creates a
complete 3D city model using a small set of statistical
and geographical input data. The system provides tools
for generating roads, allotments, buildings, and
procedural textures. Wonka et al. introduce a concept for
instant architectural building models. In their approach,
building designs are derived using parametric set
grammars, an attribute matching system, and a separate
control grammar to derive buildings having a large
variety of different styles and design ideas. In
conclusion, procedural techniques, which are not
concentrating on real-world geodata, do not need to
address the heterogeneous building models and long-
term maintenance. [5]

4 City model representations

Independent of the way of creation, virtual 3D city
models can be exported as 3D scenes in standard 3D
scene formats (e.g., VRML, X3D, or 3DS). While scene
description languages and scene graph systems offer a
broad repertoire of generic graphics functionality, they

4

MATEC Web of Conferences 270, 05008 (2019) https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/201927005008
ConCERN-2 2018

of rays from sources of light on the surface of models
and elements in the best way. Also such processing adds
realism to finished 3D-models due to the generation of
volumetric effect, the lights and darks of a picture and
also reflections on the surfaces of different subjects.

The main cost elements of visualization are the scope
and quality of work. A construction master plan
developed in a usual format contains all required
attributes. When the drawing is elevated, it is important
to know how many and which aspects of the building
should be reflected. This component has an impact on
the time and quality of the reflected virtual reality. The
color composition includes information on finishing
materials and their coloring. It contains details of all
basic elements from the pedestal to the roof and photos
of material samples.

The resulting images may be of mixed quality. It is
important to take into account the workstation resources.
Working on an average power personal computer, entails
the sacrifice of quality in animation or the decrease in
number of viewpoints, which can be used to follow the
course of animated models or to examine the whole
general construction plan. If the process of visualization
and subsequently that of animation are implemented on a
so-called render farm, the outgoing quality of the image
should not be downgraded. Using a standard computer
means compromising on the animation quality, as the
computer is simply unable to compute so many objects.

Computer-aided graphics make it possible to
generate 3D virtual models of architectural projects of
any degree of complexity and organization. 3D
visualization is an important tool of attracting investment
for a construction project, as the investor is shown not
only unemotional calculations and engineering drawings,
but also a vivid image of the future building. It is
sometimes very difficult to describe a project concept
using only traditional instruments such as drawings,
sketches or photos of similar projects.

For a 3D object to be displayed on the screen online,
it should be first presented in a dot form in a 3D
coordinate system with each displayed dot having х, у
and z coordinates. Each object’s dots that determine its
location in space are stored in the system memory. In
order to display an object on a 2D screen, it should be
visualized.

Simple exterior scenes can be generated using
“templates” available in 3ds Max starting from its 6th
version. Since the whole model is designed for
animating the process of construction of an industrial
building, all elements of the building are generated
separately and combined into groups.

Technological process visualization is a way of
displaying information about the state of technological
equipment and technological process parameters on a
computer monitor or an operator panel in an industrial
automatic control system that also provides for graphic
means of technological process control. The display
system is based on a mnemonic diagram of the
technological process, a static image that shows in
visually simple and user-friendly elements of equipment,
possibly, materials being processed and products, as well
as their interaction and processing procedure. The static

mnemonic diagram is animated reflecting the actual
condition of the equipment and raw materials.

3 Building data acquisition for master
plans

In most cases the construction is proceeding in the built
up area. In order to

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