Questions During the past decade charter schools have become established and accepted, but not without controversy. Former U.S. Secretary of Education, Arn

Questions During the past decade charter schools have become established and accepted, but not without controversy. Former U.S. Secretary of Education, Arne Duncan, stated, “The charter movement is one of the most profound changes in American education – bringing new options to underserved communities and introducing competition and innovation into the education system.”
After reviewing The President’s 2021 Budget Proposal for Education and analyzing the current funding levels for Schools of Choice, Public Charter Schools and the School Voucher Program, and then address the following issues:

What impact has the influx of charter schools and other “choice” programs had on “traditional” public education in your state and/or local district?
Do you consider schools of choice detrimental or advantageous to public education? Explain.
Include in your response the types of School Choice and K-12 scholarship programs being offered in your state.

250 words
APA
2 references U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION

Fiscal Year 2021
Budget Summary

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
FISCAL YEAR 2021 BUDGET SUMMARY

TABLE OF CONTENTS

I. SUMMARY OF THE 2021 BUDGET REQUEST ………………………………………………………………………………. 5

II. THE 2021 EDUCATION BUDGET BY PROGRAM AREA …………………………………………………………………. 9

A. Elementary and Secondary Education …………………………………………………………………………… 9

Overview ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9

Elementary and Secondary Education for the Disadvantaged Block Grant ………………………. 10

Title I Grants to Local Educational Agencies ………………………………………………………………. 10

Migrant Education ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 11

Neglected and Delinquent Education ………………………………………………………………………….. 11

Supporting Effective Instruction State Grants ……………………………………………………………… 11

21st Century Community Learning Centers ………………………………………………………………… 12

Student Support and Academic Enrichment Grants ………………………………………………………. 12

English Language Acquisition …………………………………………………………………………………… 12

Education for Homeless Children and Youths ……………………………………………………………… 13

Rural Education ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 13

Comprehensive Literacy Development Grants …………………………………………………………….. 13

Innovative Approaches to Literacy …………………………………………………………………………….. 14

Native Hawaiian Education……………………………………………………………………………………….. 14

Alaska Native Education …………………………………………………………………………………………… 14

Comprehensive Centers ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 15

Education Innovation and Research ……………………………………………………………………………. 15

Teacher and School Leader Incentive Grants ………………………………………………………………. 15

American History and Civics Education ……………………………………………………………………… 16

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Supporting Effective Educator Development (SEED) …………………………………………………… 16

Charter Schools Grants …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 16

Magnet Schools Assistance ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 17

Ready to Learn Programming (RTL) ………………………………………………………………………….. 17

Arts in Education …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 17

Javits Gifted and Talented Education …………………………………………………………………………. 18

Statewide Family Engagement Centers ………………………………………………………………………. 18

School Safety National Activities ………………………………………………………………………………. 18

Promise Neighborhoods ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 19

Full-Service Community Schools (FSCS) …………………………………………………………………… 19

State Assessments ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 19

Indian Education ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 20

Impact Aid………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 21

Training and Advisory Services …………………………………………………………………………………. 22

Supplemental Education Grants …………………………………………………………………………………. 22

B. Special Education and Rehabilitation Services ……………………………………………………………… 23

Grants to States …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 24

Preschool Grants ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 24

Grants for Infants and Families …………………………………………………………………………………… 24

State Personnel Development ……………………………………………………………………………………… 25

Technical Assistance and Dissemination ………………………………………………………………………. 25

Personnel Preparation ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 25

Parent Information Centers …………………………………………………………………………………………. 25

Educational Technology, Media, and Materials …………………………………………………………….. 26

Special Olympics Education Program ………………………………………………………………………….. 26

Vocational Rehabilitation State Grants …………………………………………………………………………. 26

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Client Assistance State Grants …………………………………………………………………………………….. 27

Training……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 27

Demonstration and Training ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 27

Independent Living Services for Older Blind Individuals ……………………………………………….. 28

Protection and Advocacy of Individual Rights ………………………………………………………………. 28

Helen Keller National Center for Deaf-Blind Youths and Adults …………………………………….. 28

Special Institutions for Persons with Disabilities …………………………………………………………… 29

C. Career, Technical and Adult Education ……………………………………………………………………….. 30

Career and Technical Education ………………………………………………………………………………….. 31

Adult Education ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 31

D. Student Financial Assistance ………………………………………………………………………………………. 32

Student Aid Summary Tables ……………………………………………………………………………………… 35

Aid Available to Students …………………………………………………………………………………………… 36

Number of Student Aid Awards …………………………………………………………………………………… 37

Federal Pell Grant Program…………………………………………………………………………………………. 38

Federal Work-Study …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 39

Iraq and Afghanistan Service Grants ……………………………………………………………………………. 39

TEACH Grants ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 40

Federal Family Education Loans and Direct Loans ………………………………………………………… 41

E. Higher Education Programs ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 44

Aid for Institutional Development ……………………………………………………………………………….. 46

Aid for Hispanic-Serving Institutions …………………………………………………………………………… 48

Consolidated Minority-Serving Institutions (MSI) Grant ………………………………………………… 48

Tribally Controlled Postsecondary Career and Technical Institutions ………………………………. 49

Special Programs for Migrant Students ………………………………………………………………………… 49

Federal TRIO Programs ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 50

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Transition Programs for Students with Intellectual Disabilities into Higher Education (TPSID) … 51

Child Care Access Means Parents In School …………………………………………………………………. 51

Teacher Quality Partnership (TQP) ……………………………………………………………………………… 51

Howard University …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 52

Academic Facilities …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 52

F. Institute of Education Sciences ……………………………………………………………………………………. 53

Research, Development, and Dissemination ………………………………………………………………….. 53

Statistics …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 53

Assessment ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 54

Research in Special Education …………………………………………………………………………………….. 54

Special Education Studies and Evaluations …………………………………………………………………… 54

III. PROGRAMS PROPOSED FOR ELIMINATION ………………………………………………………………………………. 55

IV. DEPARTMENTAL MANAGEMENT ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 58

Salaries and Expenses Overview …………………………………………………………………………………. 59

V. APPENDICES ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 63

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“Now is the time to fight for the forgotten child, and that’s what we’re doing with respect to
education. … In my Administration, these children are forgotten no longer. … We believe that
every parent should have educational freedom for their children. Earlier this year, I asked
Congress to pass a federal tax credit to support state-based scholarship programs, so we can
provide over 1 million more students with school choice. People want school choice. They want
to have their child go to a school that they want to have their child go to. It’s very simple.”

-President Donald J. Trump

I. SUMMARY OF THE 2021 BUDGET REQUEST

The fiscal year 2021 President’s Budget Request marks a significant expansion of President Trump’s effort
to transform the Federal role in education. In addition to renewing his Education Freedom Scholarship
(EFS) tax-credit proposal, which would provide a Federal tax credit of up to $5 billion a year for donations
to scholarship programs for families of elementary and secondary students who are seeking State-defined
public or private education options, the fiscal year 2021 Request would consolidate most Federal
elementary and secondary education programs into a flexible block grant that would allow States to decide
how best to use Federal funds to meet the needs of their students, improve workforce preparation through
a significant increase for career and technical education, and consider a proposal to evaluate the Office of
Federal Student Aid (FSA) as a separate organization, with reformed governance, that would significantly
increase FSA’s ability to better serve students and taxpayers alike.

Overall, the President’s fiscal year 2021 Budget includes $66.6 billion in new discretionary budget authority
for the Department of Education, a $6.1 billion, or 8.4 percent reduction below the fiscal year 2020
appropriation.

The fiscal year 2021 Request includes the following key initiatives:

Education Freedom Scholarships

President Trump’s most transformative education proposal is to establish a Federal tax credit for voluntary
donations to State-designed scholarship programs for elementary and secondary students, capped at
$5.0 billion per year. This tax credit would be available to individuals and domestic businesses that make
donations to State-identified scholarship granting organizations that offer scholarships that can be used on
a wide range of public and private educational activities, such as career and technical education, special
education services, or tuition for private school. This proposal would dramatically expand the choices
available to families and make tremendous strides toward the goal of providing all students with the
opportunity to receive a high-quality education. States, not the Federal government, will determine family
eligibility requirements and allowable uses of scholarship funds, and because it is funded by private
donations, the proposal would not divert a single dollar away from public schools or teachers.

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Elementary and Secondary Education for the Disadvantaged Block Grant

The fiscal year 2021 Request also proposes to consolidate most formula and competitive grant programs
authorized by the Elementary and Secondary Act, as amended (ESEA), as well as several related programs,
into an Elementary and Secondary Education for the Disadvantaged Block Grant (ESED Block Grant).
This proposal builds on the 2015 Every Student Succeeds Act, which reauthorized the ESEA and sought to
restore State and local control over education by significantly reducing the mandates from Washington
accompanying Federal education funds. The ESED Block Grant would further right-size the Federal role
in education and allow States and school districts to decide how best to use ESEA and related funds to meet
the needs of their students, parents, teachers, and schools. The Request would consolidate nearly 30 Federal
elementary and secondary education programs into a single $19.4 billion formula grant program, with funds
allocated through the same formulas used by the Title I Grants to Local Educational Agencies program.
States and local districts would have discretion to use those funds for any authorized purpose of the
consolidated programs, while also continuing to meet key accountability and reporting requirements aimed
at protecting students, supporting meaningful school improvement efforts, and giving parents the
information they need to support a high-quality education for their children. In addition to helping to
eliminate Federal overreach and empower States and local school districts to choose the evidence-based
strategies and interventions most likely to improve student outcomes, the consolidation of most ESEA
programs into a single formula grant would allow the Department to significantly reduce staffing and
administrative costs over time.

Career and Technical Education

The fiscal year 2021 Request increases support for Career and Technical Education (CTE) programs by
nearly $900 million to support the Administration’s goal of ensuring every high school in America has
access to CTE programs that provide multiple high-quality pathways to high-paying, in-demand jobs. The
total includes an increase of $680 million, or 53 percent, for Career and Technical Education (CTE) State
Grants, which supports high-quality CTE programs in high schools and postsecondary institutions. In
addition, the Budget renews the President’s proposal to double the American Competitiveness and
Workforce Improvement Act fee for the H-1B visa program, which would generate an estimated
$117 million in additional funding for the CTE State Grants program. The Request also provides
$90 million for CTE National Programs, an increase of $83 million, to support the development and
implementation of innovative, evidence-based, high-quality CTE programs in STEM, including computer
science.

Postsecondary Student Aid

Today, the Office of Federal Student Aid (FSA) manages the servicing of one of the largest consumer loan
portfolios in the world. In addition, FSA provides oversight for more than 6,000 institutions of higher
education that participate in the Higher Education Act (HEA) Title IV programs; develops and implements
the Free Application for Student Aid (FAFSA) process; and secures the data of the over 40 million
Americans with Federal Student Loans. Recognizing the significant growth in the scope and complexity of
FSA’s responsibilities since its establishment as a performance-based organization more than 20 years ago,
the President’s Budget proposes the evaluation of FSA as a separate organization, with reformed
governance. An updated governance model could significantly increase FSA’s ability to serve students and
taxpayers by improving its management, oversight, and administration of the Federal student aid programs.

The Budget would also rethink and modernize all aspects of how students pay for and afford college,
including sensible steps to address excessive student debt, promote multiple pathways, modernize and

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simplify the student aid process, and better position the Federal Government to deliver world-class service
to students and their families as they finance higher education. To accomplish these goals, the fiscal year
2021 Request includes proposals to simplify the Federal student loan programs and student loan repayment,
establish reasonable annual and lifetime loan limits for all Federal student loans and provide higher
education institutions more flexibility to help students avoid borrowing more than they will be able to repay.
The Request also includes proposals to expand Pell Grant eligibility to students enrolled in high-quality
short-term programs offered by institutions that provide students with a credential, certification, or license
in a high-demand field. The Budget also makes Pell Grants available to certain incarcerated students to
improve employment outcomes, reduce recidivism, and facilitate their successful reentry to society.

The Request also continues to support the multi-year Next Generation (Next Gen) student aid platform,
which includes building the technology and operational components that support the Federal student aid
programs that make up more than a third of the Department’s discretionary appropriation. Key
improvements will include the development and implementation of a new loan servicing platform to
improve service for all Federal student loan borrowers and the consolidation of all customer-facing websites
into a single, user-friendly hub to complement a new mobile platform and give students, parents, and
borrowers a seamless experience from application through repayment.

Other Critical Investments

In addition to the initiatives described above, the fiscal year 2021 Request would continue to provide strong
support for students with disabilities, invest in Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and
other minority-serving institutions (MSIs), and restructure key higher education programs to streamline and
reduce administrative costs while increasing flexibility for grantees.

Special Education Programs

The overall Request for programs in the Special Education account, which primarily funds programs
authorized by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), is $14.0 billion, an increase of
$100 million over the 2020 enacted level. Highlights include:

• $12.9 billion for IDEA Grants to States, an increase of $100 million over the fiscal year 2020
enacted level to support special education and early intervention services for more than 7 million
children with disabilities;

• $394 million for IDEA Preschool Grants, the same as the fiscal year 2020 enacted level, to help
States make a free appropriate public education available to all children with disabilities ages 3
through 5;

• $477 million for IDEA Grants for Infants and Families, the same as the fiscal year 2020 enacted
level, to help States implement statewide systems of early intervention services for infants and
toddlers with disabilities;

• $250 million for IDEA National Activities and Special Olympics education programs, the same as
the fiscal year 2020 enacted levels.

HBCU/MSI STEM Opportunity Zones Initiative

The fiscal year 2021 Request includes $150 million, an increase of $137.4 million, for the Minority Science
and Engineering Improvement Program (MSEIP) to fund STEM activities led by HBCUs and MSIs located
in Opportunity Zones. Funds could be used by these institutions to bolster STEM academic pipelines

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aligned with the local business community; improve public-private STEM partnerships; launch STEM
entrepreneurship incubators; and incentivize or complement investment from Opportunity Funds for
STEM-focused capital projects (e.g., facilities for incubators) that will help prepare the future generation
of STEM professionals. The expanded MSEIP would target $50 million to HBCUs, $50 million to
Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs), and $50 million to all other MSIs.

Historically Black Colleges and Universities

The fiscal year 2021 Request is consistent with the President’s Executive Order on HBCUs, which calls for
efforts to strengthen the capacity of HBCUs to provide the highest-quality education and to provide
opportunities for HBCU participation in Federal programs. HBCU programs, including Howard
University, would receive a total of $749.2 million, an increase of $44 million over the fiscal year 2020
enacted level (including the $50 million HBCU share of MSEIP funds proposed for fiscal year 2021). In
addition, the recent enactment of the FUTURE Act would provide $85 million in mandatory funding for
HBCUs, bringing the total amount of Department of Education support for HBCU programs in fiscal year
2021 to $834.2 million.

Minority-Serving Institutions

The fiscal year 2021 Request also would expand support for MSIs, which serve high proportions of minority
students, often in communities otherwise underserved by other institutions of higher education. The
Request provides a total of $343 million for MSIs, an increase of $87.4 million, or 34 percent, over the
fiscal year 2020 enacted level. New funds in fiscal year 2021 would be dedicated to the MSI share of the
HBCU/MSI STEM Opportunity Zones initiative described above.

In addition, the Request includes $336.3 million in combined discretionary and mandatory funding for an
expansion of the Consolidated MSI Grant proposal included in the 2020 President’s Budget. The 2021
proposal would streamline grantmaking by consolidating a total of 11 discretionary and mandatory MSI
program authorities, including the HEA Title V Aid for Hispanic-Serving Institutions programs, that have
similar purposes and activities, into a single institutional formula grant program, providing funds more
institutions can count on, yielding program management efficiencies, and targeting funds to institutions that
serve their students well. The $196.3 million discretionary Request is the same as the 2020 appropriation
for the discretionary MSI and HSI programs that would be included in the consolidated formula grant.

TRIO Student Supports Block Grant

The fiscal year 2021 Request continues to call for the transformation of the Federal TRIO programs from
a complex and difficult to administer set of Federal competitive grant programs to a single formula grant
to States that would support activities—including current TRIO activities and those authorized under
Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEAR UP) and the College
Assistance Migrant Program (CAMP)—to help low-income and other disadvantaged students progress
through the academic pipeline from middle school through postsecondary education. The proposed TRIO
Student Supports Block Grant is part of an overall Administration strategy—also reflected in the
Elementary and Secondary Education for the Disadvantaged Block Grant initiative—to restore authority
and responsibility over education from the Federal Government to the States, recognize the need for fiscal
responsibility in light of the limited Federal role in education, and reduce the size and cost of the Federal
bureaucracy. The Request for the TRIO Student Supports Block Grant is $950 million, the same as the
fiscal year 2020 President’s Budget.

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II. THE 2021 EDUCATION BUDGET BY PROGRAM AREA

A. ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION

OVERVIEW
The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), as reauthorized by the Every Student Succeeds Act
(ESSA), recognized that the primary responsibility for creating, improving, and sustaining public education
systems lies with States and local school districts. The law built on State and local reform efforts in recent
years that help to ensure educational opportunity for all students and included the following key provisions:

• Holding all students to high academic standards that prepare them for success in college and
careers;

• Annual reporting on key information about students and schools, including data on achievement
and graduation rates; measures of school climate, quality, and safety; the professional qualifications
of teachers; and per-pupil expenditures for each school and district;

• Requiring that, when students and schools fall behind, steps are taken to help them improve, with
a particular focus on the lowest-performing 5 percent of Title I schools, high schools with low
graduation rates, and schools where subgroups, including students from low-income families,
English learners, students with disabilities, and students of color, are falling behind; and

• Empowering State and local decision makers to continue to refine their own systems for school
improvement.

The ESSA reauthorized the ESEA through fiscal year 2020, and the 2021 Request opens the debate over
the future shape of the ESEA by proposing to consolidate most ESEA programs and several related
programs into a single formula grant called the Elementary and Secondary Education for the Disadvantaged
Block Grant (ESED Block Grant).

The Administration’s proposal recognizes that most ESEA funds already flow to States and school districts
through separately authorized formula grant programs that are administered primarily through Consolidated
ESEA State Plans. The ESED Block Grant would take the next logical step and consolidate all the funding
supporting those State Plans into a single State and local formula grant. As a result, the Department of
Education would wind down its labor-intensive discretionary grant competitions and national activities.

The Request includes $19.4 billion for the ESED Block Grant. In comparison to the funding of the
consolidated components in fiscal year 2020, it represents a reduction of $4.7 billion, which reflects the
Administration’s commitment to better align the limited Federal role in education with the fiscal restraint
needed to increase funding for national defense and public safety.

The Request would maintain separate funding for State Assessments, which underpins ESEA-mandated
State-determined testing and accountability systems, Training and Advisory Services authorized by
Title IV of the Civil Rights Act, Supplemental Education Grants required by the Compact of Free
Association Amendments Act of 2003, the Impact Aid programs that offset the loss of education revenue
due to the Federal presence, and Indian Education programs.

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ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION FOR THE DISADVANTAGED BLOCK GRANT

2019 2020
2021

Request
BA in millions — — …

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