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The identified framework is Orem’s self-care deficit theory. This theory helps assists nurses to discover which sides of the patient care they need to target in a particular circumstance, and it emphasizes the importance of maintaining their patients’ independence on self-care activities (Regis College, n.d.). Orem’s self-care deficit theory proposes that maintaining some independence in own health care is beneficial to promote health (Regis College, n.d.). Thus, in accordance with this theory, the goal of nursing is to assist patients to reach their maximum level of independence.

Not only physical limitation but also inadequate knowledge can be the reason for self-care deficits. Physical limitation can be addressed by supportive or medical interventions that can promote independence. Inadequate knowledge and lack of health information can be another barrier to self-care activities, and patient education can be an effective nursing intervention to promote patient knowledge. After all, patient education is one of the most important aspects of nursing services.  

The application of patient education can be easily found in all nursing fields. An example of this application is outpatient dialysis. An effective and appropriate educational program in the disease process and hemodialysis can reduce the treatment nonadherence in hemodialysis patients. Concept A is an effective and appropriate educational program in the disease process and hemodialysis, and concept B is the treatment nonadherence in hemodialysis patients. The proposition is “can reduce” which ties together two concepts.

According to Alikari et al. (2021), patient knowledge has a significant impact on treatment adherence. Patient knowledge can be promoted by an effective and appropriate patient education program. The treatment nonadherence in hemodialysis patients is measured by the number of missed treatments in one month period and three consecutive months period in an outpatient dialysis setting. Inkeroinen et al. (2021) stated that patient education promotes treatment adherence of chronic kidney patients, however, patient knowledge of their own medical condition is typically inadequate. As such, hemodialysis patients need to be regularly reeducated on how to adequately address the complex dynamics of their condition.



The theory identified, “knowledge as a component of the socio-cultural orientation basic conditioning factor enhances the prevention of hazards,” is based on Orem’s self-care deficit theory. Dorothea E. Orem conceptualized the theory, and it has various assumptions that can aid in promoting optimal care among patients (Petiprin, 2022). According to Yip (2021), many researchers have commended Orem’s self-care deficit nursing theory, especially since it aids in improving patients’ health outcomes through nurses’ contributions. In Orem’s theory, it explains the phrases self-care, self-care deficit, and nursing systems, which are essential in the nursing profession. While the theory impacts each of the patients’ independence, self-care cannot be carried out on individuals that desire entire care or assistance with self-care activities inclusive of babies and the aged. An example of the application of the theory in nursing practice is; educating the patient and family on call bell systems can enable patients to seek assistance before changing the position to protect themselves from fall or injury, thereby preventing hazards. Falls can lead to pain in patients and especially among the elderly as such, educating the patients about the call bell system can greatly reduce incidents of falls.

According to Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, a survey conducted among patients showed there were between 700000 and 1000000 incidents of falls in hospitals in the United States (“Preventing Falls in Hospitals”, 2022). Falls have been attributed to other issues such as fractures, lacerations, or internal bleeding as such leading to an increase in healthcare utilization. Research also shows that falls can be prevented, and some of the strategies that can be adopted include managing the patients’ underlying fall risk factors and optimizing the facilities’ physical design and environment. Education is among the methods that healthcare professionals can adopt with the sole intention of reducing fall rates.

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