Natural Disaster Assessment Report I have attached the case study that I would like to use Overview The nature of a disaster determines the response and fu

Natural Disaster Assessment Report I have attached the case study that I would like to use
The nature of a disaster determines the response and future preparedness. The geographic scope, number of populations affected, and uniqueness of the threat may present unique difficulties in disaster preparedness and emergency management. Preparing for and addressing emergencies effectively is a joint responsibility of all the stakeholders. On the basis of their capabilities, responsibilities, and priorities, each stakeholder plays a role in responding to the emergency, which contributes to the overall response.

 you will analyze your selected case study to understand the magnitude of the emergency, the involvement of stakeholders, challenges with the emergency planning, effectiveness of the plan, and areas for improvement. On the basis of your analysis, you will write an assessment summarizing the agency or agencies’ involvement in the disaster response efforts and make recommendations for future improvement to the federal agency. By being able to explain how federal agencies address stakeholder needs during an emergency, including how competing priorities between federal and state agencies impact local-level stakeholders and how stakeholders influence disaster recovery and preparedness plans, you will be even more prepared to successfully complete Project Two.
 submit a document containing both an assessment report and a recommendation letter to the head of the federal agency involved in the disaster recovery.
You must cite at least three additional outside sources to support your assessment and recommendations..
Specifically, you must address the following rubric criteria:

Background of Disaster or Emergency: Briefly describe the background of the selected disaster or emergency case study from the healthcare perspective.
Role of Federal Response Agencies: Analyze the role of the federal response agency in emergency or disaster management from the selected case study. Consider the following questions in your response:

How does the federal agency’s involvement impact the overall emergency response management in the chosen case study?
How did coordination between the federal agency and other stakeholders positively and/or negatively impact the emergency response management?

Stakeholders’ Influence: Analyze the influence of stakeholders on the emergency preparedness policies. Consider the following questions in your response:

Who among the stakeholders led and/or influenced the emergency response management in the selected case study?
Who (federal, state, or local agencies), according to you, has a more significant impact on the emergency preparedness policies, and why?

Impact of Stakeholders’ Priorities: Describe the impact of stakeholders’ priorities on the effectiveness of emergency response management. Consider the following questions in your response:

How do the priorities of federal and state agencies impact emergency response management?
Which factors do federal and state agencies consider when setting up the priorities for emergency response management?

Summary of Analysis: Summarize your analysis of the case study, including what was effective and what was ineffective in emergency response management. Consider the following questions in your response:

Which three response efforts do you consider effective, and why?
Which three response efforts do you consider ineffective, and why?
Which of the stakeholders contributed more effectively than others, and why?

Recommendations: Recommend a minimum of two strategic improvement suggestions to the federal agencies about emergency response management. Consider the following question in your response:

How will your suggestions help underserved/vulnerable populations?

Guidelines for Submission
Your submission should be a 4- to 6-page Word. You must also include an APA-style title page. Use 12-point Times New Roman font, double spacing, and 1-inch margins. Sources should be cited according to APA style. Interagency Recovery



Guidance Development Office, Interagency Coordination Division, Recovery, FEMA

This case study was originally published in October 2019.

Arizona Wildfire Recovery

Learning Objective: Examine how Arizona applied its Disaster Recovery Framework to leverage federal and

philanthropic resources to recover from a complex, non-declared wildfire disaster that devastated a small

community in 2013.

Keywords: Recovery, Non-Declared Disaster, Wildfire, Local Government, State Government, Coordination,

Infrastructure Systems, Low-Income Population, Identifying and Leveraging Resources, Philanthropic Organizations


In June 2013, the unincorporated community of Yarnell in Yavapai

County, Arizona experienced a dangerous wildfire caused by a

lightning strike. It took 12 days for emergency personnel to contain

the fire, during which time mandatory evacuation orders were in

place for the communities of Yarnell and Peeples Valley.

When the fire was contained, over 8,300 acres had burned. Most

devastating to the community, 19 local firefighters lost their lives

attempting to contain the fire. This was the greatest loss of U.S.

firefighter life since the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks and

the most wildland firefighters ever killed in a single fire.

According to the initial Preliminary Damage Assessment, 116

residences were impacted, 93 of which were completely destroyed.

Approximately 30 of the destroyed structures were uninsured

residential homes, and 50 percent of the impacted community was classified as low-income. Among many other

infrastructure impacts, the fire caused approximately $1 million in structural damage to the Yarnell Water

Improvement Association, a private water co-op that served as the sole water supply for the entire Yarnell area.

Damages stemming from the fire in Yarnell did not meet the threshold for FEMA funding. The Governor’s Emergency

Fund also could not provide funding for repairs to privately-owned infrastructure, including the water co-op.

Local leadership and the Yarnell community were facing a major, complex recovery effort following the wildfire. In

the days immediately following the disaster, the community was not only physically impacted, but also emotionally

impacted by the loss of fellow community members and the severe interruption to day-to-day life.

In the midst of this, the realization that local leadership would have to take the lead in facilitating and directing the

recovery effort was daunting. The level of support available from the state or federal government was a looming

question: how much financial or technical expertise would these other governmental partners be able to offer to aid

in Yarnell’s recovery? The extensive damage to local residences and infrastructure, combined with the uneven

insurance coverage and lack of direct funding from the state or federal government, meant that the Yarnell

community would need to find innovative ways to obtain funding and drive recovery progress.

Figure 1. Estimated fire progression over time in Yarnell,
Arizona in 2013. Graphic created by the National Centers
for Environmental Information, NOAA.

Guidance Development Office, Interagency Coordination Division, Recovery, FEMA

This case study was originally published in October 2019.

2 Arizona Wildfire Case Study


In 2012, Arizona had published the Arizona Disaster

Recovery Framework (AZDRF), identifying the roles and

responsibilities of a State Recovery Coordinator (SRC)

and six State Recovery Support Functions (SRSFs). The

AZDRF created a structure that identified, organized,

and coordinated key state and federal stakeholders for

recovery at any scale. Under the framework, the SRC

and the SRSFs collaborate to assess impacts, prioritize

needs, and engage additional partners in order to meet

recovery goals.

Arizona State Recovery Support Functions (SRSFs)

• Community Planning and Capacity Building

• Economic

• Health and Social Services

• Housing

• Infrastructure Systems

• Natural and Cultural Resources

Several community groups were also key to the firefighting and recovery efforts. The Granite Mountain Hotshots, a

local municipally-funded wildland firefighting crew, worked nearly nonstop alongside crews who had traveled from

other regions to help contain the fire.

Key Partners

• Infrastructure Systems SRSF

• Arizona Department of Water Resources

• Arizona Department of Environmental Quality

• Arizona Corporation Commission

• USDA Regional Offices

• U.S. Small Business Administration

• National Rural Water Association

The media coverage of the fire generated a significant

amount of attention, and financial donations stemming

from news reports covered the cost of rebuilding the

approximately 30 uninsured residential homes.

The nonprofit Yarnell Hill Recovery Group was formed to

apply for grant funding and address the community’s

unmet needs, and the Arizona Community Foundation

and Yavapai County Community Foundation jointly

awarded $400,000 to address the initial and most

critical recovery issues. Additional funding and support

from the Arizona Foundation for Charitable Support, the 100 Club of Arizona, and other non-governmental

organizations contributed to the community’s long-term recovery. In total, approximately $13 million in public

donations was distributed to victims and their families.

The U.S. Small Business Administration also stepped in, offering business loans of up to $2 million, home loans of

up to $200,000, and personal property loans of up to $40,000, all low interest, for residents and business owners

in Yarnell and other affected communities.

The state activated the Infrastructure Systems SRSF to coordinate the repair effort for the water co-op. The Arizona

Department of Water Resources and the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality took the lead and formed a

working group that convened and coordinated relevant

stakeholders to find a recovery solution that would incorporate

resiliency and leverage federal interagency support.

Through the working group, the Arizona Corporation

Commission, USDA Rural Development, and the National Rural

Water Association assessed the current state of the water

supply and relevant infrastructure systems and identified

available financial resources, including consolidated and

restructured loan options for the privately-owned water

infrastructure. The stakeholders worked together to effectively Figure 2. Firefighting efforts in Yarnell, Arizona in 2013. Source:
NBC News.

Guidance Development Office, Interagency Coordination Division, Recovery, FEMA

This case study was originally published in October 2019.

3 Arizona Wildfire Case Study

reorganize the private co-op’s debt by expediting loan approvals and consolidating existing loans. These

collaborative efforts allowed the co-op to maintain the Yarnell community’s water supply during the recovery period.

In 2015, another fire struck the Yarnell community. Though local officials were better prepared because of the

actions taken in 2013, the Yarnell community partnered with USDA Rural Development once again for additional fire

preparedness improvements during the recovery, including repairs to water infrastructure owned by the Yarnell

Water Improvement Association and upgraded equipment for the Yarnell Fire Department.

The 2013 fire had a significant emotional impact on the community. The Yarnell Hill Fire Memorial Park and the

Granite Mountain Interagency Hotshot Crew Learning and Tribute Center were both established to honor the 19

firefighters who lost their lives and provide spaces for remembrance and reflection.

Lessons Learned

• Having a state recovery framework in place pre-disaster greatly improved the state’s ability to coordinate
recovery efforts in the absence of a federal disaster declaration.

• Leveraging financial donations and private sector grants for home repairs and victim needs allowed the
Yarnell community to use federal funding for infrastructure improvements, both aiding recovery from the

2013 fire and increasing the community’s resiliency for future disasters.

• The interagency, cross-sector working group was crucial to finding a sustainable, long-term solution for
the damaged water co-op.

• As a result of lessons learned after this fire, the Arizona Disaster Recovery Framework was updated to
include specific tools for conducting recovery assessments, activating State Recovery Support Functions,

and establishing clear communication post-disaster.

Additional Resources
• Arizona State Emergency Response & Recovery Plan (updated 2017)

• Yarnell Hill Recovery Group

• USDA Yarnell Community Update

• Outside Magazine: The True Story of the Yarnell Hill Fire

• Arizona Central: Yarnell Charitable Donations

19: The True Story of the Yarnell Hill Fire

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