Literature Review This is the assignment. I have uploaded the .doc file assignment that was completed last week. The topic is electric cars.
This week, you will write a review of literature based on the technology you are investigating for your Course Project. A review of literature may be defined as an analysis of published information in a particular subject area. It has some similarities to an annotated bibliography, which you have completed in a previous class, but differs in important respects. An annotated bibliography focuses on annotations, or summaries, of sources. In contrast, a review of literature analyzes the sources, draws connections among them, and notes changes in thinking over time. A review of literature will focus on the following questions.
What are the key points of agreement among the sources?
What are the key points of disagreement among the sources?
Do any of the sources appear to be outliers? In other words, are there any sources that bring up issues, or make assertions, that the other sources do not discuss?
Which sources appear to be the most powerful or influential? Are there sources that all of the other sources deem highly authoritative?
Are there any sources whose assertions seem dubious, illogical, or unsupported by the facts?
How has thinking changed about your topic over time? Are there beliefs that have fallen out of favor?
Successful assignments will do the following.
Analyze at least five sources from reputable publications that can be found in the DeVry Library
Demonstrate points of similarities and differences, note patterns, and evaluate source quality
Be approximately 750–1,000 words in length
Be formatted per current APA standards, including a separate title page and references page
Don’t forget to submit your assignment for grading. 2
Historical and Ethical Contexts: Electric Vehicles
The selected technology is the electric vehicle. An electric vehicle refers to an automobile that utilizes battery power to run rather than the standard internal combustion engine (Barkenbus, 2020). Thus, it is powered by electricity and not gasoline. Regarding how it works, the electric vehicle is first charged by plugging into a home charger or a public charging station. The electricity they draw is stored in rechargeable batteries. The batteries are then used to power an electric motor or motors, which turn the vehicle’s wheels. The main purpose of an electric vehicle is to provide transportation using renewable energy. Running on electricity ensures the vehicle does not emit greenhouse gases and exhaust fumes into the atmosphere (Li, Khajepour, & Song, 2019). This prevents air pollution that is common with gasoline-powered vehicles. Also, running on electricity means the vehicle is very quiet and does not cause noise pollution. Electric vehicles are lighter and accelerate faster than those that use internal combustion engines.
The history of the electric car can be traced back to 1828 when Anyos Jedlik created a small model car that was powered by an electric motor. In the late 1830s, another inventor, Robert Anderson, created a larger electric motor that could drive a carriage. However, it was until the 1870s that the electric car started becoming practical (Barkenbus, 2020). In the US, the first successful electric vehicle was debuted in 1890. By 1899, the electric car started gaining popularity since it was easy to drive, was quite, and did not have air pollutants. This popularity made many inventors including Thomas Edison to make efforts to improve the electric vehicle technology, particularly the batteries. However, in the 1930s, the popularity of electric vehicles started declining. The building of better roads, coupled with the discovery of cheap crude oil in Texas led to the decline in the demand for electric vehicles.
This trend would continue until the 1970s when gas prices soared and interest in electric vehicles was rekindled. The profile of the electric vehicle was further raised when a vehicle running on electricity was sent to the moon. Companies like General Motors went ahead to start the development of electric vehicles. During the 1970s, a popular brand of electric vehicle was the Sebring-Vanguard, which had a range of 60 miles. In 1990, new state and federal regulations were made to increase the interest in electric vehicles (Barkenbus, 2020). By 2000, Toyota released the first mass-produced hybrid vehicle in the world, the Prius. This greatly enhanced the popularity of the electric vehicle and more research and development went into the industry. In 2006, Tesla Motors got into the business and started the process of creating various types of electric vehicles including luxury models. This company would go on to become a leader in the electric vehicle industry. By 2009, many countries started investing in charging infrastructure to help more consumers purchase electric vehicles. At present, these vehicles are being promoted as one way of reducing carbon emissions and tackling climate change.
1) Considering cobalt is a major raw material in the production of electric vehicles, how is the industry tackling the human rights issues associated with cobalt mining?
2) Lithium is another raw material for the production of electric vehicles. How is the industry dealing with the environmental degradation caused by lithium mining?
3) Electric vehicles are meant to help fight climate change through the production of less emissions and use of renewable energy. However, is their production sustainable?
Two ethical theories will be used to develop the analysis of the electric vehicle. First, there is deontology. “The deontological class of ethical theories states that people should adhere to their obligations and duties when engaged in decision making when ethics are in play” (Chonko, 2021, p. 2). Second, there is utilitarianism. “Utilitarian ethical theories are based on one’s ability to predict the consequences of an action” (Chonko, 2021, p. 2). These two theories will facilitate the critical analysis of the electric vehicle.
Barkenbus, J. N. (2020). Prospects for electric vehicles. Sustainability, 12(14), 5813.
Chonko, L. (2021). Ethical theories. The University of Texas.
Li, Z., Khajepour, A., & Song, J. (2019). A comprehensive review of the key technologies for pure electric vehicles. Energy, 182, 824-839.