Lit-BIM Student Number: W19042969 Student’s Name: Easwar karthik .Dara Course: Integrated Building Information Modeling Project Subject Code: KB70

Student Number: W19042969

Student’s Name: Easwar karthik .Dara

Course: Integrated Building Information Modeling Project

Subject Code: KB7038

Title: Literature Review on BIM Enable project on Offsite Processes and Modern Methods of


Department of Mechanical and Construction Engineering

Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE18ST, United Kingdom

Word Count: 3246

Images : 9



The Building information management (BIM) approach involves integration of structures,

systems and people as well as processes into a collective approach to enhance efficiency,

effectiveness, productivity, performance and reduction in every stage in project lifecycle. It helps

reduce time spent, costs involved and avoid errors. It helps the contractors save time, but the cost

rises because of detecting design errors at the initial stages. The value it adds at the design stage

is very significant since designers evaluate the design option and generate the 3D and 2D

models. Using BIM, owners can have accurate and clear visualization of the project design since

the 3D models and the 2D drawings are easy and simple to understand thereby simplifying

communication. The modern methods of construction (MMC) aim at reducing the cost, time and

maintain project sustainability. Modern methods of construction promote improved processes

and products. These methods include precast flat panel system, steel structure with multi-layered

composite enclosure, 3D volumetric construction (modular construction), flat slab construction,

precast concrete foundations and twin wall technology.Modern methods of construction use less

time while designing, planning and approval by the authority since no testing when a new project

begins. There are enhanced safety and health concerns for constructors.


BIM system is the digital illustration of a construction as a source of information concerning a

project and an object with three dimensions which facilitates the exchange of information with

software related applications. BIM is founded in the integration of contractors, employers,

engineers, architects in addition to consultants and a three dimensional object for knowledge and

information providence. BIM offers information for a construction structure direct from the

initial stage of planning and design up to the completion phase as well as during the termination

of the deal. Moreover, apart from increasing the integration and cooperation of the involved

systems BIM offers knowledge and information database for the construction (Miettinen and

Paavola, 2014).This system provides new ideas and information to go on with communication

process perfectly during construction thus all stakeholders acquire the necessary information

needed at every stage of the construction process by availing the needed tools for identifying the

firm or the project policies,standards and responsibilities from the initial stage of the project.


The growth in the demand for sustainable construction in this century is majorly to solve the

issues of environment,non-livable, unsafe, uneasy to operate and unsecure non-sustainable

construction creates. The users of sustainable construction are essentially the developers, users

and owners of construction. According to Womack and Jones(2015), consumers’ requirements

should be fulfilled. Users of sustainable construction would prefer their issues solved effectively,

with less expenses,less time and effort. Clients of sustainable construction need their issues

solved where and when they need them solved. They need the number of decisions regarding

their problems reduced. Hence, the importance of sustainable construction lies in fulfilling the

expectations of these clients. Delivering of this value needs effective integration and

consciousness in delivering the process since construction needs many systems which are

integrated. If one system has an issue the rest will be affected in delivering their functions. These

systems include the structure, architectural, engineering, electrical and plumbing. These help

deliver the needed performance (Mahbub et al, 2010)

Figure 1: Building information modelling

Source:Smith and Edgar, 2008


Literature review

BIM has not only shown some positive impact in the construction sector but also in architectural

and engineering as among the most high ranked communication and information technologies

used in this industry(Moreno, Olbina, and Issa, 2019). Architectural, engineer and construction

has adopted the 3D visualization, detection of clash, analysis of feasibility, review of

construction, facility management,scheduling and LEED analysis (Gheisari and Irizarry, 2016).

In the normal case BIM can be perceived as a software but it is also a process (Azhar, Khalfan

and Maqsood, 2012). Apart from being a three dimension (3D)objectit also comprises of

important workflow changes, management of project and delivery. Moreover, it integrates the

systems during the project delivery. This approach integrates structures, systems and people and

processes into a common approach to optimize effectiveness, efficiency, performance,

productivity and reduction in each and every stage in project lifecycle (Won et al, 2013). There

is an extra schedule of work that is time information giving the four dimensions object (4D) and

in addition to cost information a fifth dimensional model occurs (5D). The sixth dimension(6D)

facilitates management which is the operation and the other model analyses the impact on

environment (sustainability). The 8th dimension concerns security of the site of the project


Figure 2: Types of data integrated in a BIM model

Source:Josseaux, 2019


Benefits of adopting BIM in projects

BIM application in projects is influenced by readiness of field engineer, project manager, and

architect in the use of BIM, owner’s call to adopt BIM, and convolution of project. The size of

the Project and type of the project (Cao et al, 2015), as well as the delivery method of the project

and establishment of collaborative work atmospheres have substantial impact on the BIM

execution in projects. This phenomenon has great impact on all the stakeholders of a project.

Generally it helps reduce time spent, costs involved and prevent errors. Some of the stakeholders

who have benefitted from use of BIM include:


Coordination of the construction systems by contractors is enabled by BIM whereby they can

easily notice clashes and take the corrective measures to these issues. It helps them save time, but

the cost rises because of detecting design errors at the initial stages. Contractors also benefit from

building information management since they calculate takeoffs of quantity and cost estimation

for bidding and organizing project schedules using this system as well as managing field work

(Ahn, Kwak and Suk, 2016). Scheduling and planning by subcontractors is also enhanced by

BIM. It is also used in marketing and visualization of the project. This is a great source of useful

building models and information requests on building site for solving any mistake made as soon

as possible and is also useful when dealing with complex projects.


A significant support is given by architecture, electrical and construction industry on the use of

BIM. The value it adds at the design stage is very significant since designers evaluate the design

option and generate the 3 and 2 d models. This promotes transfer of information swiftly among

the design disciplines and also enhances system integration (Eastman et al.,2011). Architects are

able to minimize omissions and errors, reduce repetitive work and shorten design time.With the

integration of BIM, designers can program the improvement of building documents, like

construction details and drawing of shop that are simply produced for numerous construction

systems from the building model. The adoption of automation in the construction processes

permits engineers and architects spend more time in designing since the documents are ready and

precise and this promotes accuracy.



Applying BIM offers a competitive advantage to architectural, engineering and construction

firms by facilitating them to deliver new services to the owners and warranting owners’ full

return on the investment. Those projects that are BIM bases give quality products, with less cost

and in an effective way something which the public owners have perceived (Porwal and Hewage,

2013). By use of BIM owners can have accurate and clear visualization of the project design

since the 3D models and the 2D drawings are easy and simple to understand thus communication

is simple.

Modern methods of construction and their applications

A diverse range of modern methods of construction (MMC) products and methods have emerged

that have wholly altered the behavior of construction sector from the way it was in the past. This

change is remarkable and it aims at developing this sector further. These methods of construction

aim at reducing the cost, time and maintain project sustainability. When building, there are

various components which are needed and in the right proportions. This is due to the cost

involved. The construction method technique to building helps save time, to the constructors as

well as the owners of the buildings who pay money. Saving time saves money (Boyd, Khalfan

and Maqsood, 2013). Offsite construction methods are structure parts or prefabrication

components, constructed at one point, transported and assembled on site. The kind of homes

which are modular takes much time to be constructed compared to those built on site (Chen,

Okudan, and Riley, 2010).

According to Chen (2010) modern methods of construction have promoted productivity and

enhanced quality, durability, conservation of materials, health and safety and promote

architectural appearance, less site waste and reduced water and energy consumption. Modern

methods of construction promote improved processes and products. They are geared at

improving efficiency of businesses, satisfaction of customer, sustainability hence they have a

broader focus. Various construction methods are used to solve the inefficiencies that existed due

to traditional methods.


Precast flat panel system

This construction method entails making of walls and floors off site. Facilities and Factory

outlets are required which are separate. Design specifications and requirements are considered in

constructing the panel units and then taken to the site. Repetitive constructions are suited by this

method (Unlu, 2010.).

Figure 3: precast flat panel

Source: Wild, 2019.

This method also supports mass production, it is speedy and consistent. Panels include

components like windows, doors in addition to floors and walls. Features such as fitted

insulations and wall finishes are also included (Amin Einea et al, 1991). This method is

advantageous in that it reduces on-site waste and maintenance but at the same time hard to

handle and transport. Completion of the project time is shortened.

Steel Structure with Multi-layered Composite Enclosure

This is an industrialized system of construction which makes use of metal structure, composed of

structural elements which are very standard in the laminated steel and multiple layer enclosed

walls. Onsite accuracy engineering building of steel erection syndicates with a method

manufactured offsite in plants, frequently by use of reused materials via recycling procedures

with petite construction times. Once the attachments are sealed the acoustic insulation and


thermal conductivity gives very efficient results in energy conservation (Forgues, Tahrani, and

Schmitz, 2013).

Figure 4: Steel Structure with Multi-layered Composite Enclosure


Source: Wild, 2019

Modular construction (3D volumetric construction)

As the name suggests, the 3D volumetric construction entails the construction of 3D parts

inform of building block in off site. When the time of installation comes, they are taken to the

site and assembling of the module is done step by step. Each module constructed is in 3D units

thus the name 3D volumetric construction (Jung et al, 2018). It is also known as modular



Figure 5: Modular construction.

Source: Swiszczowski, 2020

The conveyance of the modules is done in several procedures or methods. This can include the

conveyance of the elementary structure or a finished unit with all the external and internal

finishes, with services installed in it, with only assembling part remaining (Pheng and Hui,

2004). The construction of the factory brings diverse unit of similar product upholding their

quality throughout. This method also suits repetitive construction and this enables quick

assembly of products.

Flat slab construction

These are structural components which serve various purposes. In the construction sector, it

offers a flat form of quick construction and minimum depth. The column grids of the system are

also flexible enough (Erberik and Elnashai, 2004).


Figure 6: Flat slab construction

Source: Anand Paul, 2014

When the slab soffit partitions need to be sealed because of fire or acoustic reasons, the flat slabs

are considered. These slabs are very economical and faster method of construction compared to

other methods. The slabs constructed can be finished with a descent surface soffit finish and this

promotes utilization of the visible soffits. According toNeasden Primary School(2019), this

mode of construction acts as a means of rising energy efficiency since exploitation of thermal

mass for construction is permitted in the designing of heating, ventilation and cooling


Precast Concrete Foundations

For the fast construction of establishment, the precast concrete approach can be engaged. This

system is more appropriate for a custom-made design. In this case the foundation construction is

done separately on the offsite (factory) then later assembled after being brought to the site. The

constructed product should bear the required quality as stated by the designer for strong

foundation to be achieved (Trifunac et al, 1999).


Figure 7: Precast foundation block

Source: Kumar et al, 2017

The assembled foundation is majorly backed up by concrete piles. During the assembling phase,

the two systems ate interconnected this increasing the productivity of the foundation system, its

quality and also decrease quantity of soil excavation (Hanna and Zeliniski, 2003.). This system

of construction best suits hostile and extreme climate is also good to depend on this

system when the ground under use is highly contaminated.

Twin wall technology

This method of construction acts as a hybrid solution for the construction of wall units that

syndicates the erection speed qualities and the structural integrity of precast concrete of in situ

concrete (Gohnert, 2000). This system of wall erection promises waterproof reliability and

structural integrity of the structure being built.


Figure 8: Twin wall

Source: Wild, 2019

This system comprises of two walls slab that are separated. They are separated by a cast in mess

girders. The process of constructing these two separate wall entails: placing the units of the wall

at a good place in the site, then support the twin walls temporarily, they are later connected

through reinforcing and lastly filling the gap between the wall units with concrete. This mode of

construction is very swift than the other forms and also economical (Salje and Lee, 2004). It is

used in close association with the precast floor construction.

Benefits of modern methods of construction

Pan, Gibb& Dainty (2008) are researchers who did a research to examine the benefits related

with the use of modern construction methods as compared to the traditional methods of

construction. From Pan, Gibb& Dainty (2008) perspective, the modern methods of construction

are best in addressing the shortage and the poor quality of building all over the world. Modern

methods of construction use less time for the design and delivery of the whole project as

compared to the traditional methods of building. Modern methods of construction use less time

while designing and planning and also approval by the authority since no testing when a new

project begins. These opinions are supported by are upheld by Adebayo, Price & Gibb (2006)

who claims that the use of modern methods of construction has seen major project completion in

health sector as compared to when this sector was using traditional methods. According to the

material change for better environment (2007), modern construction systems have the potential

in reducing environmental waste by recycling its materials throughout the project lifecycle


(Gitonga). Taylor (2009) argues that modern construction methods have embraced offsite

construction methods which are highly automated. This raises the level of benefits related to the

modern construction approaches which is composed of predictability, faster construction, high-

quality assurance and reduced resources wastage during the process of construction.

Furthermore, there are enhanced safety and health concerns for constructors as MMC building

registers a considerably reduced number of accidents cases when likened to the traditional

methods of construction accredited to less workers on the construction site.

Figure 9: Benefits of adopting modern methods of construction

Source:Koutsogiannis, 2013

Barriers to off- site modern methods of construction

Past studies have illustrated the slow implementation of modern methods of construction is

related to several aspects. The barriers to modern construction include high costs, poor planning,


comparability challenge and overambitious economies of scale. The perception owners of

projects has had on insurance and financial markets has also been hindering the implementation

of the construction methods. This has been supported by Rahman (2014) that project owners who

depend on credit to raise their projects meet a challenge because of the perception they have on

these methods from the insurance and financial markets. High costs are also associated with

these modern construction methods since there is transportation of construction resources to the

site. There should be integration between the traditional and the modern construction methods in

order to develop a significant difference after the transition more so on the planning of the

systems. These methods have not been received well by the public who has the poor majority

thus a reluctance to implement these construction methods has been spotted despite the benefits

they have thereby less demand to workers, designers, engineers and even constructors.

Mesároš&Mandičák (2015), also adds that modern method adoption has not been successful

because of the low quantity production which is followed by reduced costs when these modern

methods are used. In the building and construction sector has received a big challenge which is

lack of workmen who have the necessary skills of modern construction methods

Strategies to promote the adoption of Modern Method of Construction

Increasing partnership and corporation among the parties involved and ensuring communication

is effective is a key strategic aspect which needs to be considered. There should be regulations

which should promote the implementation of modern methods of construction by authorizing the

quality assurance to integrate modern methods with the present construction regulations

(International Code Council, 2000). The architects, engineers and constructors should collaborate

on these issues and lay down standard that would promote economies of scale and also support

modern construction methods in this industry. Furthermore modern method can be incorporated

with construction designs and promote compatibility with traditional construction technology.

Collaboration and integration of the various systems which support construction methods like the

insurance and finance is also a strategy which can promote the adoption on modern construction

methods (Kyjaková, Mandičák and Mesároš, 2014.). The government should also have an insight

on the construction methods and plan how to support their adoption by creating favorable

political, social and economic atmosphere for the implementation. Creating awareness through


education and training of the firms concerned and permitting enough time for doing designing in

learning institutions can increase the demand for modern methods of building.


The emergence of Building information modeling has modernized the designing and managing

of projects. Predictability of construction operation and performance has been enhanced by

implementation of BIM. As the adoption of BIM hastens, integration within project workers also

increase, which enhances profitability, cost reduction, shorter time and promote client- customer

relationships. BIMs signifies a new model within AEC, one that inspires collaboration of the

tasks of all project stakeholders. This cooperation has the prospective to bringing about better

efficiency, effectiveness and harmony among workers who did not integrate in the past due to

differences among them (Gu and London, 2010). Although there are many benefits reaped when

BIM is implemented, there are also barriers to this system. In the past contractors did the plan of

architects because of the inflexibility of traditional models which hindered integration. There

were numerous errors and mistakes, inconsistencies and redundancy in the construction industry.

With the emergence of BIM transfer of architectural drawings has been enhanced because the

contractor and the architects could cooperate and work together as a team.

The rise in demand of quality constructions has called for implementation of modern methods.

Comparing the traditional methods of construction with modern ones gives a big difference since

quality and efficiency is promoted in present days. Modern methods have fewer errors, use few

resources, short time to completion and this promotes quality. There are numerous types of

modern construction methods which simplify work but there are hindrances to their adoption.

Nothing can be fully perfect thus strategies have been put in place to curb these obstacles.


List of Articles Reviewed

S.No Articles Name Year

1 Impact of modern methods of construction on healthcare Infrastructure. 2006

2 Contractors’ transformation strategies for adopting building information



3 State-of-the-art of precast concrete sandwich panels 1991

4 Flat Slab Floor System. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Flat Slabs 2014

5 Building information modelling (BIM) 2012

6 Off-site construction of apartment buildings. 2013

7 Practices and effectiveness of building information modelling in

construction projects in China


8 Sustainable performance criteria for construction method selection in

concrete buildings


9 A guide to building information modeling for owners, managers,

designers, engineers and contractors


10 Fragility analysis of flat-slab structures 2004

11 Improving Efficiency and Productivity in the Construction Sector through

the use of Information Technology


12 Investigating human and technological requirements for successful

implementation of a BIM-based mobile augmented reality environment in

facility management practices. Facilities


13 Modern Methods of Construction to Build Homes More Quickly and

Efficiently: A Study of the UK Industry


14 Proposed theory to determine the horizontal shear between composite

precast and in situ concrete.


15 Understanding and facilitating BIM adoption in the AEC industry 2010

16 Prefabricated concrete foundations for housing 2003

17 International building code 2000 2000

18 The BIM revolution in building management 2019

19 Automated 3D volumetric reconstruction of multiple-room building

interiors for as-built BIM


20 Modern methods of construction 2013

21 Prefabricated Foundation System for Single Storey Houses.Journal for the

Advancement of Performance Information & Value


22 Modern methods of constructions and their components 2014

23 Impacts of traffic and rainfall characteristics on heavy metals build-up and

wash-off from urban roads



24 BIM use by architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry in

educational facility projects


25 Leading UK housebuilders’ utilization of offsite construction methods. 2008



S.No Title Year Source

1 Figure: 1 Building information modelling 2008 Smith and Edgar

2 Figure: 2 Types of data integrated in a BIM


2019 Josseaux

3 Figure : 3 precast flat panel 2019 Wild

4 Figure: 4 Steel Structure with Multi-

layered Composite Enclosure

2019 Wild

5 Figure: 5 Modular construction. 2020 Swiszczowski

6 Figure: 6 Flat slab construction 2014 Anand Paul

7 Figure: 7 Precast foundation block 2017 Source: Kumar et al,

8 Figure: 8 Twin wall 2019 Wild

9 Figure: 9 Benefits of adopting modern

methods of construction

2013 Koutsogiannis



Adebayo, A.K., Price, A. and Gibb, A., 2006. Impact of modern methods of construction on

healthcare infrastructure.

Ahn, Y.H., Kwak, Y.H. and Suk, S.J., 2016. Contractors’ transformation strategies for adopting

building information modeling. Journal of management in engineering, 32(1),


Amin Einea, P.E., Salmon, D.С., Fogarasi, G.J., Culp, T.D. and Tadros, M.K., 1991. State-of-

the-art of precast concrete sandwich panels. PCI journal, 36(6), pp.78-98.

Anand Paul, 2014. Flat Slab Floor System. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Flat Slabs.

Azhar, S., Khalfan, M. and Maqsood, T., 2012. Building information modelling (BIM): now and

beyond. Construction Economics and Building, 12(4), pp.15-28.

Boyd, N., Khalfan, M.M. and Maqsood, T., 2013.Off-site construction of apartment

buildings. Journal of architectural engineering, 19(1), pp.51-57.

Cao, D., Wang, G., Li, H., Skitmore, M., Huang, T. and Zhang, W., 2015.Practices and

effectiveness of building information modelling in construction projects in

China. Automation in construction, 49, pp.113-122.

Chen, Y., Okudan, G.E. and Riley, D.R., 2010. Sustainable performance criteria for construction

method selection in concrete buildings. Automation in construction, 19(2), pp.235-244.

Eastman, C.M., Eastman, C., Teicholz, P., Sacks, R. and Liston, K., 2011. BIM handbook: A

guide to building information modeling for owners, managers, designers, engineers and

contractors. John Wiley & Sons.

Erberik, M.A. and Elnashai, A.S., 2004. Fragility analysis of flat-slab structures. Engineering

Structures, 26(7), pp.937-948.

Forgues, D., Tahrani, S. and Schmitz, D., 2013. Improving Efficiency and Productivity in the

Construction Sector through the use of Information Technology.CEFRIO Phase 4-Final

Report.Ecole de technologiesupérieure.


Gheisari, M. and Irizarry, J., 2016.Investigating human and technolo

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