ITM Article Critique Review the article and write One Key takeaway in 200 words. NO citation. NO reference. Just a lesson or a key takeaway from the artic

ITM Article Critique Review the article and write One Key takeaway in 200 words.

NO citation. NO reference. Just a lesson or a key takeaway from the article TEM Journal. Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 1447-1453, ISSN 2217‐8309, DOI: 10.18421/TEM103-57, August 2021. 

TEM Journal – Volume 10 / Number 3 / 2021.      1447 

Development of the Concept of
Cybersecurity of the Organization

Anatolii A. Loishyn, Spartak Hohoniants, Mykola Ya.Tkach,
Maksym H. Tyshchenko, Nataliya M. Tarasenko, Volodymyr S. Kyvliuk

The National Defence University of Ukraine named after Ivan Cherniakhovskyi, Kyiv, Ukraine

Abstract – The article is of interest to managers and
scientists at all levels who deal with combating cyber
threats. The study analyzed the security environment
and confirmed the rapid growth of malware and
cyberattacks. The stages of development of cybercrime
are analyzed, and the most significant cyberattacks
that have taken place in recent years are identified.
Statistics on the number of cyberattacks and their
devastating impact on economies are presented. A brief
description of the available types of malware and the
algorithm of unauthorised entry of cyber attackers into
the system is given. The article offers a variant of
developing the concept of cybersecurity, defines the
range of participants in ensuring the organisation’s
cybersecurity, and formulates an algorithm for its
development and operation.

Keywords – Cybersecurity, Cyberattacks,
Cybercrime, Concept of Cybersecurity.

1. Introduction

Today, security in information and cyberspace is
becoming increasingly important. There is a rapid
trend towards the digitalization of all spheres of
human activity.

DOI: 10.18421/TEM103-57 
https://doi.org/10.18421/TEM103-57 

Corresponding author: Anatolii Loishyn,  
The National Defence University of Ukraine named after 
Ivan Cherniakhovskyi, Ukraine. 
Email: aloishyn@gmail.com 

Received:   21 February 2021. 
Revised:     12 August 2021. 
Accepted:   17 August 2021. 
Published:  27 August 2021. 

©  2021  Anatolii  Loishyn  et  al;  published  by 
UIKTEN.  This  work  is  licensed  under  the  Creative 
Commons  Attribution‐NonCommercial‐NoDerivs  4.0 
License. 

The  article  is  published  with  Open  Access  at 
www.temjournal.com 

Analysis of trends in science and technology
shows the growing dependence of man on digital
tools, organizations on databases in networks,
banking on digital payments, countries on the
management of weapons of strategic importance
through computer technology and software.

Every day, groups of experienced cybercriminals
seize control of other people’s computers and gadgets
of all forms of ownership; launch a series of
destructive programs against sites. In a matter of
seconds, ATMs, companies, telephone lines, and
even the presidential sites of the world’s powers
cease to function. There is a tendency in the world to
increase attention to cybersecurity and information
resource management.

No one could have predicted that the financial
crisis in 2007-2008, which began with the US
mortgage crisis, bank failures, and falling stock
prices, would lead to a global economic crisis
(sometimes called the “Great Recession”) [1].

Next, humanity faced an infectious disease that
was first detected in humans in December 2019 in
China [2]. The disease began as an outbreak that
developed into a pandemic. The cause of the disease
was the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 [3], [4]. The
disease has dealt a devastating blow not only to
human health but to the global economy as a whole.

1.1. Novelty of Research

The disease forced a significant part of the world’s
population to consider the issue of remote work,
educational institutions switched to distance learning,
a large number of online conferences, meetings, and
business meetings are held every day. This
undoubtedly stimulated the trend towards expanding
the scope of digital technologies.

Given the above, the financial crisis and infectious
diseases like the “black swans” could not have been
foreseen in advance to develop appropriate
countermeasures [5]. Therefore, one should not deny
the possibility of a catastrophic world-class
cyberattacks that may take place in the future. Today
it is impossible to predict what social, economic, and

https://doi.org/10.18421/TEM103-57

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1448                                                                                                                      TEM Journal – Volume 10 / Number 3 / 2021. 

political consequences the world will face if the
Internet stops even for a day.
Thus, it should be noted that our personal and
corporate computer networks and digital processes
have to be reliably protected. The actualization of the
research topic is confirmed by the need to counter
cyberattacks, study them, and analyze the
development of the prerequisites for their occurrence
and possible countermeasures technologies.

1.2. Setting Objective

The purpose of the article is to develop a variant of

the cybersecurity concept for an organization.

1.3. Methodology

To achieve the purpose defined in the study, its
decomposition was carried out. So, within the target,
the following tasks were performed:

1) It is a description of the security environment
(brief statistics of the background of the study,
determination of prerequisites for the development of
cybercrime, analysis of the largest cyberattacks in the
world, statistics on the number of cyberattacks and
predicted losses from them, classification of types of
cyber threats).

The scientific knowledge methods were used to
solve the problem: a systematic approach with
careful consideration of environmental safety,
analysis in determining the numerical indicators used
in the study, synthesis – a combination (grouping) of
elements (arrows) of the study.

2) Development of a variant within the concept of
cyber defense of the organization (determination of
the prerequisites for developing a concept,
determining the circle of participants in the
development and implementation of the concept,
determining the algorithm for developing and
implementing the concept).

To solve the set partial task, the methods of
scientific knowledge were used: a systematic
approach – in describing the functioning of the
organization’s cyber defense system, analysis and
synthesis – in determining the elements of the
concept, their grouping, and the like.

2. Results

2.1 The general trend towards an increase in the

number of cyber threats, in turn, leads to a sharp
increase in the costs of business and government
agencies for data protection. So, according to
forecasts by Cybersecurity Ventures, over the next
four years, global spending on cybersecurity will
amount to about $ 1 trillion. However, the damage
from cybercrime will also increase significantly [6].

So, in 2015, the cost of reimbursing global damage
for attacks using ransomware amounted to $ 325
million. In 2017, according to preliminary estimates,
these costs will exceed $ 5 billion, and by 2021 the
figure will exceed the $ 6 trillion bar. Global
cybercrime spending is expected to grow by 15 per
cent per year, reaching 10.5 billion by 2025.
Combined, this exceeds the damage caused by
natural disasters per year and will be more profitable
than the global illicit drugs trade together [7].

When comparing computer viruses and biological
viruses, we will find many similarities. As a rule, the
disease causes a runny nose in a person, and along
with a runny nose comes sneezing, the particles of
which, falling on another person, can infect him.
Cybercriminals use a similar technique, and it is
called “spam”. By sending thousands of infected
emails, they infect many computers. The flu virus has
mutated since it uses the body of an infected person
to spread the virus. It is also not enough for a
computer virus to infect only one computer; it tends
to spread over a large area. Severe virus attacks can
kill a computer or damage the system very badly, just
like biological viruses. Many viruses can remain in
the body of an infected person for a long time, up to
several weeks until he finds out that he is sick.

Furthermore, during such an incubation period, a
person can infect other people. The same goes for
computer viruses. Computer viruses can go
unnoticed until a hacker works remotely and
launches them.

Additionally, the number of cyber extortion
(ransomware) cases is proliferating [8]. Ransomware
is defined as malicious software that blocks users’
access to their devices or blocks access to files until
an amount of money or a ransom is paid.
Ransomware causes downtime, data loss, the
potential for theft of intellectual property, and in
some industries, the attack is considered a data
breach. From 1989 to the present, this type of
cyberattack has a general upward trend. In 1989, the
first-ever ransomware virus was created that was
transmitted on floppy disks. The drives contained
malicious code that hid file directories, blocked
filenames, and required victims to send $ 189 to
Panama if they wanted their data back. This case was
the impetus for the development of this type of
threat. Cyber extortion is a significant problem today.
It is predicted that in 2021 there will be an attack
with organization requirements every 11 seconds, up
from every 40 seconds in 2016 [9].

To confirm the importance of research, one should
stop and give examples of the largest cyberattacks
that have taken place over the past years (Table 1).

TEM Journal. Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 1447‐1453, ISSN 2217‐8309, DOI: 10.18421/TEM103‐57, August 2021. 

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Table 1. Known cyberattacks were carried out between
1999 and 2020.

Year Ref.
The purpose
of the attack

Brief description

1999 [10]
International
Space Station

The teenager hacked the
NASA server.

1999
[11],
[12]

Infection of
computers
based on
Windows
operating
systems

A virus has been created
that infects Windows
computers (Melissa).
The virus modified
critical files causing the
system to crash.
Approximately 20% of
computers running
Windows were infected.

2007 [13]
Hacker attack
on Estonia

Cybercriminals create
groups and carry out
attacks across the
country.

2010 [14]
Attack on
Iran’s nuclear
program

Infected equipment at
manufacturers’ factories
got into a protected
system.

2011 [15]

Hacking
Sony
PlayStation
Client
Database

The Lulzsec hacker
group hacked into the
player database.

2013
[16],
[17],
[18]

Attack on
Spamhaus

The largest DDOS
attack in the history of
the Internet. The blow
was so powerful that it
slowed down the entire
Internet on the planet, in
some countries it led to a
network outage for
several hours.

2014 [19]

Mt.Gox
exchange
hacked by
hackers

$ 470 Million Crypto
Coins Stolen

2014 [20]

Hackers
hacked digital
protection of
US military
bases.

Blueprints for 20 of the
latest weapon systems
have been stolen.

2017
[21],
[22]

“Petya” virus
attack on
computer
systems in
Ukraine

Government sites and
businesses, banks,
institutions, media and
private sites were
affected.

2018 [23]

Hacking
Brazilian
Ministry of
Defense
Server

The damage was not
disclosed.

2020 [24]
Hack
Nintendo

Cybercriminals gained
access to Nintendo
Network IDs (NNIDs).
The attack affected
300,000 people.

Analysis of the information presented in the table
(Table 1) allows us to trace a clear trend – hacker
methods are increasingly modelling the corporate
hierarchy. Cybercriminals unite in online
communities (such as Red Hacker Alliance [25],
Anonymous [26] Red Hack [27], which allows them
to attack objects together. As indicated in the table,
the target of cyberattacks can be: government
organizations, commercial organizations, banking
institutions, private accounts and accounts. The
profile and methods of activity of hacker attacks can
have not only economic goals, but also political ones,
which in turn equates cybercriminals with
cyberterrorists.

It is can also cite the following facts analyzing the
targeted use of cyber weapons in international and
domestic politics. One of the first large-scale
applications of cyber weapons occurred in Iran in
2009-2010. Unlike common malware running on
popular operating systems, the Stuxnet virus used
against Iran was explicitly designed to infiltrate
industrial computers. This virus paralyzed Iran’s
nuclear program, due to which the production of
uranium in this country was reduced by 20%. As a
result of several disclosures and information leaks, it
can be argued that specialists developed this virus
from the United States and Israel [28].

Analyses of the activities of organized cybercrime
require defining the main significant events that
accompanied its origin and development
(Table 2).

Table 2. The activities of organized cybercrime require
defining the main significant events that accompanied its
origin and development

Period The content of the event

1960s

The first computer hackers were from the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (USA).
Some members of the group used the new
university computers for their purposes to
manipulate programs [29].

1970s
Hacking local and international phone
networks to make calls for free

1980s
Hacker groups began to form. The first was
Legion of Doom in the US and Chaos
Computer Club in Germany.

1983 The first film about hackers “War Games”
1984 Publishing of the hacker magazine “2600”.

1986

For the first time in its history, the US
Congress passed the Computer Fraud and
Abuse Act, making computer hacking a crime
[30].

1988

A self-replicating program called the Morris
Worm disabled about 6,000 university and
government computers across America,
causing massive damage estimated at about $
96.5 million [31].

1993
The famous NCSA Mosaic web browser
appeared.

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1450                                                                                                                      TEM Journal – Volume 10 / Number 3 / 2021. 

The subjects of the commission of computer
crimes can be both internal users (persons who are in
labour relations with the enterprise where the crime
was committed) and external users (persons who are
not in labour relations with the enterprise where the
crime was committed). The generalized data of
forensic practice show that internal users commit
94% of crimes, while external users – only 6%, while
70% are users of the computer system, and 24% are
service personnel [32].

The number of cyberattacks is growing every day
due to the rapid scientific and technological progress
of digital technologies and an increase in the
proportion of remote execution of tasks due to the
world’s problematic epidemiological situation.
Experts estimate a 600% rise in cybercrime due to
COVID-19. Figure 1 depicts how the total number of
computer malware infections has increased in recent
years [33], [34]. Unfortunately, accurate data on the
number of cyberattacks in 2019 and 2020 in 2020
Cyber Security Statistics (the Ultimate List of Stats,
Data & Trends), is not listed.

Figure 1. Total malware infection Grows Rare
(in Millions).

To understand the information presented, it is

necessary to bring the general structure of cyber
threats, which currently occur (Table 3).

Table 3. The general structure of cyber threats.

trojan software
Malicious software performs
unauthorized destruction of files of
both system and regular applications.

computer viruses
Programs inject malicious
instructions into any user software.

worms
A malicious code uses network
resources during its distribution.

spyware
Programs unauthorized and
purposefully collects information
about the user.

phishing attack
It is a type of social engineering in
which data is “fished out” from the
user.

rootkits It is utilities used to mask suspicious

activity on the user’s device.

ransomware
programs

Software when it enters the device of
an ordinary user encrypts files
valuable to him.

cryptojacking
Programs begin to exploit the
resources of his computer for mining
cryptocurrency.

hoax- programs
Software that forces the user to buy
another product by deception.

spam Unsolicited correspondence.

The presence of the threats indicated in the table
allows us to state that it is possible to satisfy any
unlawful needs with the help of cyberattacks by
stealing (transferring) funds, obtaining various
information, blackmail, disclosing personal
information, hacking and appropriating accounts and
accounts.

In our opinion, when the world is in a problematic
epidemiological situation, the demand for the
opportunity to work remotely has increased.
Employees of organizations receive office
computers, or remote access to perform the necessary
work remotely, conduct online conferences,
exchange service information. Remote work outside
the office, especially at a computer that is not reliably
protected, leads to the ingress of harmful software
products into the corporate system due to disruption
of the functioning of service information in the
general system of the organization.

In order to access the information system of any
organization, a cybercriminal has to perform several
interrelated steps (steps), which are:

1) Collecting information about the object of the
cyberattack;

2) Identification of weaknesses in defence;
3) The choice of cyberattack tools;
4) Infiltration of malicious content into the system;
5) Unauthorized entry into the system;
6) Deployment of covert criminal activity;
7) Software control and management;
8) Achieving a specific criminal goal;
9) Destruction of the facts of presence.

In our opinion, one of the most vulnerable places
for a cyberattack in the protection of any system is e-
mail boxes, software applications, and automated
telephone exchanges. Mailboxes are the input and
output channels for the circulation of all information
both within and outside the organization. This
vulnerability needs to be neutralized by clearly
separating the ways of communication between staff
within the organization and obtaining information
from external consumers. Many modern services
combine internal and external document management
to organize the circulation of information within the
organization in the software market. In general, it is
necessary to consider creating a gateway in the

12.4  29.97 
48.17 

82.62 
165.81 

308.96 

452.93 

580.4 

702.06 

812.67 

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1

2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

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TEM Journal – Volume 10 / Number 3 / 2021.                                                                                                                    1451 

organization, which will accumulate incoming
documents to the address of the organization, and
after careful inspection to be delivered to the
structural units for internal use.

All of the above confirms the need to implement
appropriate tools to counter threats in cyberspace.
Every organization needs to build an appropriate
system to counter cyberattacks.

The study’s result is the development of the
author’s version of building a system of concepts
within cybersecurity of the organization with the
development of an appropriate concept. This concept
aims to a holistic perception of cyber threats by
management and staff, and it develops an appropriate
model of how the system protection works. The
concept covers all processes in the organization to
prevent cyber threats.

The primary purpose of the concept is to minimize
internal and external cyber threats, including:

1) Internal threats: information leakage, malware
distribution, unauthorized access, and conflict of
interest.

2) External threats: intelligence of competitors,
unauthorized access of external users, theft of
information, distortion of information, blackmail
(extortion), and financial fraud.

It should be noted that the list of external and
internal threats is much broader and identified threats
can have both internal and external features
(characteristics).

The starting point in the development of the
concept is the study of institution’s security
department and prerequisites for its construction. As
of today, the prerequisites for building a reliable
system to combat cyber threats are:

1) The general tendency to increase cyberattacks;
2) Infiltration into the malware system;
3) Rapid development of digital technologies;
4) The use of electronic document management in

the organization;
5) Increasing the complexity of data processing;
6) Increasing the requirements of national and

international legislation to combat cyber threats.

Also, the prerequisites for the development of the
concept should include proposals from other
departments of the institution:

Compliance unit – on the compliance of the
organization’s cybersecurity system with the relevant
legislation, requirements of international (domestic)
standards (if necessary);

Internal control unit – on identified risks in
cybersecurity and the need to develop appropriate
countermeasures.

Next, the security unit analyzes the security
environment and analyzes external and internal

factors that affect the institution’s security system.
The result of this work is a draft concept of
cybersecurity of the organization, which includes
some interrelated elements:

1) Description of the security environment;
2) Purpose, goals of the concept;
3) Participants and powers;
4) Resource provision;
5) Contractors (suppliers);
6) Instructions (instructions for managers;

instructions for employees; action protocols;
schedule of circulation of documents and
information, external and internal).

It should be added that the stated goals and
objectives set out in the concept should correspond to
the abbreviation widely used in management and
project management – SMART (Specific,
Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, Time related).

The draft Concept is submitted to the
organization’s management to ensure the
implementation of the security policy function in
cybersecurity.

Moreover, the implementation of the policy
including comprehensive support of the organization
considers the need for appropriate resources and
technical means necessary for the implementation of
measures to combat cyber threats.

It is necessary to pay attention to the compliance
department’s activities, which within the
implementation of the tasks checks compliance with
the law and determines the required level of
implementation of requirements in the organization,
including compliance with technical requirements for
equipment and information protection. These
requirements are summarized and submitted to the
technical support department to consider the
requirements during the draft technical support plan’s
preparation for the partial implementation of the
organization’s support policy. The technical support
department also provides proposals, if necessary, on
the feasibility of attracting external support – IT
audit, the need for software maintenance, the name of
suppliers of machinery and services, the involvement
of other services and equipment necessary for the
organization’s smooth operation. These tasks have to
be performed under the security department’s close
supervision, as the main body responsible for
organizing access and the need to provide it to the
organization’s systems to both employees and
external users.

The primary basis for implementing the above
approaches to the organization’s cybersecurity is
primarily the need to isolate information flows within
the processes that take place in the organization. It is
achieved by ensuring the circulation of official
information only through secure channels in the
mandatory absence of employees’ possibility to use
third-party media. It is also essential to determine the
level of access to each employee of the organization.
All incoming or outgoing information has to be
passed through appropriate security gateways. At the

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1452                                                                                                                      TEM Journal – Volume 10 / Number 3 / 2021. 

same time, attention should be paid to the security of
the organization’s automated telephone exchanges as
dangerous sources of cyber threats. Control measures
should cover the issues of comprehensive protection
of e-mail, channels of connection to the corporate
network, and employees’ interaction with the
Internet.

The general approach to the development and
location of the proposed concept of cybersecurity of
the …

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