How Did Pennsylvania’s Quaker Beginnings Distinguish It From Other Colonies In British America? PLEASE INCLUDE YOUR OWN VOICE IN THE ANALYSIS, NOT JUST TEX

How Did Pennsylvania’s Quaker Beginnings Distinguish It From Other Colonies In British America? PLEASE INCLUDE YOUR OWN VOICE IN THE ANALYSIS, NOT JUST TEXTBOOK REPHRASING.
How did Pennsylvania’s Quaker beginnings distinguish it from other colonies in British America?

This question is broader than the simple sentence implies, as you need to really discuss the different elements found in Pennsylvania’s Quaker founders.

Discussion of the founding of the colony.
Discussion of how the Quakers treated other belief systems.
Discussion of how the Quakers treated Native Americans.

Connection to the present: What are some of the lessons or methods we could still be using today to build stronger ties with others?

Key passages:

Pennsylvania – pages 100 – 101 Chapter 4 | Rule Britannia! The English Empire, 1660–1763


Rule Britannia! The English Empire,


Figure 4.1 Isaac Royall and his family, seen here in a 1741 portrait by Robert
Feke, moved to Medford,

Massachusetts, from the West Indian island of Antigua, bringing their slaves with
them. They were an affluent British

colonial family, proud of their success and the success of the British Empire.

Chapter Outline

4.1 Charles II and the Restoration Colonies

4.2 The Glorious Revolution and the English Empire

4.3 An Empire of Slavery and the Consumer Revolution

4.4 Great Awakening and Enlightenment

4.5 Wars for Empire


The eighteenth century witnessed the birth of Great Britain (after the union of
England and Scotland

in 1707) and the expansion of the British Empire. By the mid-1700s, Great Britain

had developed into

a commercial and military powerhouse; its economic sway ranged from India, where
the British East

India Company had gained control over both trade and territory, to the West African
coast, where British

slave traders predominated, and to the British West Indies, whose lucrative sugar
plantations, especially

in Barbados and Jamaica, provided windfall profits for British planters. Meanwhile,
the population rose

dramatically in Britain’s North American colonies. In the early 1700s the
population in the colonies had

reached 250,000. By 1750, however, over a million British migrants and African
slaves had established a

near-continuous zone of settlement on the Atlantic coast from Maine to Georgia.

During this period, the ties between Great Britain and the American colonies only
grew stronger. Anglo-

American colonists considered themselves part of the British Empire in all ways:
politically, militarily,

religiously (as Protestants), intellectually, and racially. The portrait of the
Royall family (Figure 4.1)

exemplifies the colonial American gentry of the eighteenth century. Successful and
well-to-do, they

display fashions, hairstyles, and furnishings that all speak to their identity as
proud and loyal British


Chapter 4 | Rule Britannia! The English Empire, 1660–1763

4.1 Charles II and the Restoration Colonies

By the end of this section, you will be able to:

• Analyze the causes and consequences of the Restoration

• Identify the Restoration colonies and their role in the expansion of the


When Charles II ascended the throne in 1660, English subjects on both sides of the
Atlantic celebrated

the restoration of the English monarchy after a decade of living without a king as
a result of the English

Civil Wars. Charles II lost little time in strengthening England’s global power.
From the 1660s to the 1680s,

Charles II added more possessions to England’s North American holdings by
establishing the Restoration

colonies of New York and New Jersey (taking these areas from the Dutch) as well as
Pennsylvania and

the Carolinas. In order to reap the greatest economic benefit from England’s
overseas possessions, Charles

II enacted the mercantilist Navigation Acts, although many colonial merchants
ignored them because

enforcement remained lax.


The chronicle of Charles II begins with his father, Charles I. Charles I ascended
the English throne in

1625 and soon married a French Catholic princess, Henrietta Maria, who was not well
liked by English

Protestants because she openly practiced Catholicism during her husband’s reign.
The most outspoken

Protestants, the Puritans, had a strong voice in Parliament in the 1620s, and they
strongly opposed the

king’s marriage and his ties to Catholicism. When Parliament tried to contest his
edicts, including the

king’s efforts to impose taxes without Parliament’s consent, Charles I suspended
Parliament in 1629 and

ruled without one for the next eleven years.

The ensuing struggle between the king and Parliament led to the outbreak of war.
The English Civil War

lasted from 1642 to 1649 and pitted the king and his Royalist supporters against

Oliver Cromwell and

his Parliamentary forces. After years of fighting, the Parliamentary forces gained
the upper hand, and in

1649, they charged Charles I with treason and beheaded him. The monarchy was
dissolved, and England

Figure 4.2

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Chapter 4 | Rule Britannia! The English Empire, 1660–1763

became a republic: a state without a king. Oliver Cromwell headed the new English
Commonwealth, and

the period known as the English interregnum, or the time between kings, began.

Though Cromwell enjoyed widespread popularity at first, over time he appeared to
many in England to

be taking on the powers of a military dictator. Dissatisfaction with Cromwell grew.
When he died in 1658

and control passed to his son Richard, who lacked the political skills of his
father, a majority of the English

people feared an alternate hereditary monarchy in the making. They had had enough
and asked Charles II

to be king. In 1660, they welcomed the son of the executed king Charles I back to
the throne to resume the

English monarchy and bring the interregnum to an end (Figure 4.3). The return of
Charles II is known as

the Restoration.

Figure 4.3 The monarchy and Parliament fought for control of England during the
seventeenth century. Though

Oliver Cromwell (a), shown here in a 1656 portrait by Samuel Cooper, appeared to
offer England a better mode of

government, he assumed broad powers for himself and disregarded cherished English
liberties established under

Magna Carta in 1215. As a result, the English people welcomed Charles II (b) back
to the throne in 1660. This portrait

by John Michael Wright was painted ca. 1660–1665, soon after the new king gained
the throne.

Charles II was committed to expanding England’s overseas possessions. His policies
in the 1660s through

the 1680s established and supported the Restoration colonies: the Carolinas, New
Jersey, New York, and

Pennsylvania. All the Restoration colonies started as proprietary colonies, that
is, the king gave each

colony to a trusted individual, family, or group.


Charles II hoped to establish English control of the area between Virginia and
Spanish Florida. To that end,

he issued a royal charter in 1663 to eight trusted and loyal supporters, each of
whom was to be a feudal-

style proprietor of a region of the province of Carolina.

These proprietors did not relocate to the colonies, however. Instead, English
plantation owners from the

tiny Caribbean island of Barbados, already a well-established English sugar colony
fueled by slave labor,

migrated to the southern part of Carolina to settle there. In 1670, they
established Charles Town (later

Charleston), named in honor of Charles II, at the junction of the Ashley and Cooper
Rivers (Figure 4.4).

As the settlement around Charles Town grew, it began to produce livestock for
export to the West Indies.

In the northern part of Carolina, settlers turned sap from pine trees into
turpentine used to waterproof

wooden ships. Political disagreements between settlers in the northern and southern
parts of Carolina

escalated in the 1710s through the 1720s and led to the creation, in 1729, of two
colonies, North and South

Carolina. The southern part of Carolina had been producing rice and indigo (a plant
that yields a dark blue

dye used by English royalty) since the 1700s, and South Carolina continued to
depend on these main crops.

Chapter 4 | Rule Britannia! The English Empire, 1660–1763

North Carolina continued to produce items for ships, especially turpentine and tar,
and its population

increased as Virginians moved there to expand their tobacco holdings. Tobacco was
the primary export of

both Virginia and North Carolina, which also traded in deerskins and slaves from

Figure 4.4 The port of colonial Charles Towne, depicted here on a 1733 map of North
America, was the largest in

the South and played a significant role in the Atlantic slave trade.

Slavery developed quickly in the Carolinas, largely because so many of the early
migrants came from

Barbados, where slavery was well established. By the end of the 1600s, a very
wealthy class of rice planters

who relied on slaves had attained dominance in the southern part of the Carolinas,
especially around

Charles Town. By 1715, South Carolina had a black majority because of the number of
slaves in the colony.

The legal basis for slavery was established in the early 1700s as the Carolinas
began to pass slave laws

based on the Barbados slave codes of the late 1600s. These laws reduced Africans to
the status of property

to be bought and sold as other commodities.

Click and Explore

Visit the Charleston Museum’s interactive exhibit
The Walled City

( to
learn more about the history of


As in other areas of English settlement, native peoples in the Carolinas suffered
tremendously from

the introduction of European diseases. Despite the effects of disease, Indians in
the area endured and,

following the pattern elsewhere in the colonies, grew dependent on European goods.
Local Yamasee and

Creek tribes built up a trade deficit with the English, trading deerskins and
captive slaves for European

guns. English settlers exacerbated tensions with local Indian tribes, especially
the Yamasee, by expanding

their rice and tobacco fields into Indian lands. Worse still, English traders took
native women captive as

payment for debts.

The outrages committed by traders, combined with the seemingly unstoppable
expansion of English

settlement onto native land, led to the outbreak of the Yamasee War (1715–1718), an
effort by a coalition of

local tribes to drive away the European invaders. This native effort to force the
newcomers back across the

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Chapter 4 | Rule Britannia! The English Empire, 1660–1763

Atlantic nearly succeeded in annihilating the Carolina colonies. Only when the
Cherokee allied themselves

with the English did the coalition’s goal of eliminating the English from the
region falter. The Yamasee

War demonstrates the key role native peoples played in shaping the outcome of
colonial struggles and,

perhaps most important, the disunity that existed between different native groups.


Charles II also set his sights on the Dutch colony of New Netherland. The English
takeover of New

Netherland originated in the imperial rivalry between the Dutch and the English.
During the Anglo-Dutch

wars of the 1650s and 1660s, the two powers attempted to gain commercial advantages

in the Atlantic

World. During the Second Anglo-Dutch War (1664–1667), English forces gained control
of the Dutch fur

trading colony of New Netherland, and in 1664, Charles II gave this colony
(including present-day New

Jersey) to his brother James, Duke of York (later James II). The colony and city
were renamed New York

in his honor. The Dutch in New York chafed under English rule. In 1673, during the
Third Anglo-Dutch

War (1672–1674), the Dutch recaptured the colony. However, at the end of the
conflict, the English had

regained control (Figure 4.5).

Figure 4.5 “View of New Amsterdam” (ca. 1665), a watercolor by Johannes Vingboons,
was painted during the

Anglo-Dutch wars of the 1660s and 1670s. New Amsterdam was officially
reincorporated as New York City in 1664,

but alternated under Dutch and English rule until 1674.

The Duke of York had no desire to govern locally or listen to the wishes of local
colonists. It wasn’t

until 1683, therefore, almost 20 years after the English took control of the
colony, that colonists were able

to convene a local representative legislature. The assembly’s 1683 Charter of
Liberties and Privileges set

out the traditional rights of Englishmen, like the right to trial by jury and the
right to representative


The English continued the Dutch patroonship system, granting large estates to a
favored few families.

The largest of these estates, at 160,000 acres, was given to Robert Livingston in
1686. The Livingstons

and the other manorial families who controlled the Hudson River Valley formed a
formidable political

and economic force. Eighteenth-century New York City, meanwhile, contained a
variety of people and

religions—as well as Dutch and English people, it held French Protestants
(Huguenots), Jews, Puritans,

Quakers, Anglicans, and a large population of slaves. As they did in other zones of
colonization, native

peoples played a key role in shaping the history of colonial New York. After
decades of war in the 1600s,

the powerful Five Nations of the Iroquois, composed of the Mohawk, Oneida,
Onondaga, Cayuga, and

Seneca, successfully pursued a policy of neutrality with both the English and, to
the north, the French in

Canada during the first half of the 1700s. This native policy meant that the
Iroquois continued to live in

their own villages under their own government while enjoying the benefits of trade
with both the French

and the English.

Chapter 4 | Rule Britannia! The English Empire, 1660–1763


The Restoration colonies also included Pennsylvania, which became the geographic
center of British

colonial America. Pennsylvania (which means “Penn’s Woods” in Latin) was created in
1681, when

Charles II bestowed the largest proprietary colony in the Americas on William Penn
(Figure 4.6) to settle

the large debt he owed the Penn family. William Penn’s father, Admiral William
Penn, had served the

English crown by helping take Jamaica from the Spanish in 1655. The king personally
owed the Admiral

money as well.

Figure 4.6 Charles II granted William Penn the land that eventually became the
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in

order to settle a debt the English crown owed to Penn’s father.

Like early settlers of the New England colonies, Pennsylvania’s first colonists
migrated mostly for religious

reasons. William Penn himself was a Quaker, a member of a new Protestant
denomination called the

Society of Friends. George Fox had founded the Society of Friends in England in the
late 1640s, having

grown dissatisfied with Puritanism and the idea of predestination. Rather, Fox and
his followers stressed

that everyone had an “inner light” inside him or her, a spark of divinity. They
gained the name Quakers

because they were said to quake when the inner light moved them. Quakers rejected
the idea of worldly

rank, believing instead in a new and radical form of social equality. Their speech
reflected this belief in

that they addressed all others as equals, using “thee” and “thou” rather than terms
like “your lordship” or

“my lady” that were customary for privileged individuals of the hereditary elite.

The English crown persecuted Quakers in England, and colonial governments were
equally harsh;

Massachusetts even executed several early Quakers who had gone to proselytize
there. To avoid such

persecution, Quakers and their families at first created a community on the sugar
island of Barbados.

Soon after its founding, however, Pennsylvania became the destination of choice.
Quakers flocked to

Pennsylvania as well as New Jersey, where they could preach and practice their
religion in peace. Unlike

New England, whose official religion was Puritanism, Pennsylvania did not establish
an official church.

Indeed, the colony allowed a degree of religious tolerance found nowhere else in
English America. To help

encourage immigration to his colony, Penn promised fifty acres of land to people
who agreed to come to

Pennsylvania and completed their term of service. Not surprisingly, those seeking a
better life came in

large numbers, so much so that Pennsylvania relied on indentured servants more than
any other colony.

One of the primary tenets of Quakerism is pacifism, leading William Penn to
establish friendly

relationships with local native peoples. He formed a covenant of friendship with
the Lenni Lenape

(Delaware) tribe, buying their land for a fair price instead of taking it by force.
In 1701, he also signed a

treaty with the Susquehannocks to avoid war. Unlike other colonies, Pennsylvania
did not experience war

on the frontier with native peoples during its early history.

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Chapter 4 | Rule Britannia! The English Empire, 1660–1763

As an important port city, Philadelphia grew rapidly. Quaker merchants there
established contacts

throughout the Atlantic world and participated in the thriving African slave trade.
Some Quakers, who

were deeply troubled by the contradiction between their belief in the “inner light”
and the practice of

slavery, rejected the practice and engaged in efforts to abolish it altogether.
Philadelphia also acted as a

magnet for immigrants, who came not only from England, but from all over Europe by
the hundreds of

thousands. The city, and indeed all of Pennsylvania, appeared to be the best

country for poor men and

women, many of whom arrived as servants and dreamed of owning land. A very few,
like the fortunate

Benjamin Franklin, a runaway from Puritan Boston, did extraordinarily well. Other
immigrant groups in

the colony, most notably Germans and Scotch-Irish (families from Scotland and
England who had first

lived in Ireland before moving to British America), greatly improved their lot in
Pennsylvania. Of course,

Africans imported into the colony to labor for white masters fared far worse.


John Wilson Offers Reward for Escaped Prisoners

The American Weekly Mercury, published by William Bradford, was
Philadelphia’s first newspaper. This

advertisement from “John Wilson, Goaler” (jailer) offers a reward for
anyone capturing several men who

escaped from the jail.

BROKE out of the Common Goal of Philadelphia, the 15th of this
Instant February, 1721, the

following Persons:

John Palmer, also Plumly, alias Paine, Servant to Joseph Jones,
run away and was lately

taken up at New-York. He is fully described in the American
Mercury, Novem. 23, 1721. He

has a Cinnamon coloured Coat on, a middle sized fresh coloured
Man. His Master will give a

Pistole Reward to any who Shall Secure him, besides what is here

Daniel Oughtopay, A Dutchman, aged about 24 Years, Servant to Dr.
Johnston in Amboy. He

is a thin Spare man, grey Drugget Waistcoat and Breeches and a
light-coloured Coat on.

Ebenezor Mallary, a New-England, aged about 24 Years, is a
middle-sized thin Man, having

on a Snuff colour’d Coat, and ordinary Ticking Waistcoat and

Breeches. He has dark brown

strait Hair.

Matthew Dulany, an Irish Man, down-look’d Swarthy Complexion, and
has on an Olive-

coloured Cloth Coat and Waistcoat with Cloth Buttons.

John Flemming, an Irish Lad, aged about 18, belonging to Mr.
Miranda, Merchant in this City.

He has no Coat, a grey Drugget Waistcoat, and a narrow brim’d Hat

John Corbet, a Shropshire Man, a Runaway Servant from Alexander
Faulkner of Maryland,

broke out on the 12th Instant. He has got a double-breasted
Sailor’s Jacket on lined with red

Bays, pretends to be a Sailor, and once taught School at Josephs
Collings’s in the Jerseys.

Whoever takes up and secures all, or any One of these Felons,
shall have a Pistole Reward

for each of them and reasonable Charges, paid them by John
Wilson, Goaler

—Advertisement from the American Weekly Mercury, 1722

What do the descriptions of the men tell you about life in colonial

Click and Explore

Browse a number of issues of the American Weekly

( that were
digitized by New Jersey’s Stockton

University. Read through several to get a
remarkable flavor of life in early eighteenth-

century Philadelphia.


Chapter 4 | Rule Britannia! The English Empire, 1660–1763


Creating wealth for the Empire remained a primary goal, and in the second half of
the seventeenth century,

especially during the Restoration, England attempted to gain better control of
trade with the American

colonies. The mercantilist policies by which it tried to achieve this control are
known as the Navigation


The 1651 Navigation Ordnance, a product of Cromwell’s England, required that only
English ships carry

goods between England and the colonies, and that the captain and three-fourths of
the crew had to be

English. The ordnance further listed “enumerated articles” that could be
transported only to England or

to English colonies, including the most lucrative commodities like sugar and
tobacco as well as indigo,

rice, molasses, and naval stores such as turpentine. All were valuable goods not
produced in England or

in demand by the British navy. After ascending the throne, Charles II approved the
1660 Navigation Act,

which restated the 1651 act to ensure a monopoly on imports from the colonies.

Other Navigation Acts included the 1663 Staple Act and the 1673 Plantation Duties
Act. The Staple Act

barred colonists from importing goods that had not been made in England, creating a
profitable monopoly

for English exporters and manufacturers. The Plantation Duties Act taxed enumerated
articles exported

from one colony to another, a measure aimed principally at New Englanders, who
transported great

quantities of molasses from the West Indies, including smuggled molasses from
French-held islands, to

make into rum.

In 1675, Charles II organized the Lords of Trade and Plantation, commonly known as
the Lords of Trade,

an administrative body intended to create stronger ties between the colonial
governments and the crown.

However, the 1696 Navigation Act created the Board of Trade, replacing the Lords of
Trade. This act,

meant to strengthen enforcement of customs laws, also established vice-admiralty
courts where the crown

could prosecute customs violators without a jury. Under this act, customs officials
were empowered with

warrants known as “writs of assistance” to board and search vessels suspected of
containing smuggled


Despite the Navigation Acts, however, Great Britain exercised lax control over the
English colonies during

most of the eighteenth century because of the policies of Prime Minister Robert
Walpole. During his long

term (1721–1742), Walpole governed according to his belief that commerce flourished
best when it was not

encumbered with restrictions. Historians have described this lack of strict
enforcement of the Navigation

Acts as salutary neglect. In addition, nothing prevented colonists from building
their own fleet of ships

to engage in trade. New England especially benefited from both salutary neglect and
a vibrant maritime

culture made possible by the scores of trading vessels built in the northern
colonies. The case of the 1733

Molasses Act illustrates the weaknesses of British mercantilist policy. The 1733
act placed a sixpence-per-

gallon duty on raw sugar, rum, and molasses from Britain’s competitors, the French
and the Dutch, in

order to give an advantage to British West Indian producers. Because the British
did not enforce the 1733

law, however, New England mariners routinely smuggled these items from the French
and Dutch West

Indies more cheaply than they could buy them on English islands.

4.2 The Glorious Revolution and the English Empire

By the end of this section, you will be able to:

• Identify the causes of the Glorious Revolution

• Explain the outcomes of the Glorious Revolution

During the brief rule of King James II, many in England feared the imposition of a
Catholic absolute

monarchy by the man who modeled his rule on that of his French Catholic cousin,
Louis XIV. Opposition

to James II, spearheaded by the English Whig party, overthrew the king in the
Glorious Revolution of

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Chapter 4 | Rule Britannia! The English Empire, 1660–1763

1688–1689. This paved the way for the Protestant reign of William of Orange and his
wife Mary (James’s

Protestant daughter).


King James II (Figure 4.7), the second son of Charles I, ascended the English
throne in 1685 on the death of

his brother, Charles II. James then worked to model his rule on the reign of the
French Catholic King Louis

XIV, his cousin. This meant centralizing English political strength around the
throne, giving the monarchy

absolute power. Also like Louis XIV, James II practiced a strict and intolerant
form of Roman Catholicism

after he converted from Protestantism in the late 1660s. He had a Catholic wife,
and when they had a son,

the potential for a Catholic heir to the English throne became a threat to English
Protestants. James also

worked to modernize the English army and navy. The fact that the king kept a
standing army in times of

peace greatly alarmed the English, who believed that such a force would be used to
crush their liberty. As

James’s strength grew, his opponents feared their king would turn England into a
Catholic monarchy with

absolute power over her people.

Figure 4.7 James II (shown here in a painting ca. 1690) worked to centralize the
English government. The Catholic

king of France, Louis XIV, provided a template for James’s policies.

In 1686, James II applied his concept of a centralized state to the colonies by
creating an enormous

colony called the Dominion of New England. The Dominion included all the New
England colonies

(Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Plymouth, Connecticut, New Haven, and Rhode Island)
and in 1688 was

enlarged by the addition of New York and New Jersey. James placed in charge Sir
Edmund Andros, a

former colonial governor of New York. Loyal to James II and his family, Andros had
little sympathy for

New Englanders. His regime caused great uneasiness among New England Puritans when
it called into

question the many land titles that did not acknowledge the king and imposed fees
for their reconfirmation.

Andros also committed himself to enforcing the Navigation Acts, a move that
threatened to disrupt the

region’s trade, which was based largely on smuggling.

In England, opponents of James II’s efforts to create a centralized Catholic state
were known as Whigs. The

Whigs worked to depose James, and in late 1688 they succeeded, an event they
celebrated as the Glorious

Revolution while James fled to the court of Louis XIV in …

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