Respond to 2 peers that make a contribution to the historical discussion with at least 100 words for each required response due Sunday. Research must be done in the library using JSTOR database or other sources that are creditable.
Lillian E. Fishburne is an african american woman who then became the first to hold the rank of Rear Admiral in the United States Navy. Lillian is known as “a woman whose story helps us to understand the truth that women are an indispensable part of today’s military.” Without Lillian holding such a high place of power in the navy during her time, women today wouldn’t be able to do the same.
Lillian E. Fishburne was born on March 25th, 1949 in Patuxent River, Maryland and then raised in Rockville, Maryland. Not much is known about her childhood and early life but we do know that her father was active-duty when she was born. Her father has said that he had no problem with her having her own military career regardless of her being a woman. At that time not many women were in either the military or the navy unless they were nurses. After she graduated from high school , she attended Lincoln University in Oxford, Pennsylvania where she graduated with a Bachelor’s degree in Sociology.
She got her first Navel assignment. She was assigned at the Naval Air Test Facility, Lakehurst, New Jersey, as a Personnel and Legal Officer. She wasn’t there for long though. She was then an Officer Programs recruiter in Miami, Florida from 1974 to 1977. During this time she earned her Master’s from Webster College in 1980. She also earned her Master of Science in Telecommunications Systems Management at the Naval Postgraduate School during this time. In her final assignment she served as the Director, Information Transfer Division for the Space, Information Warfare, Command and Control Directorate, Chief of Naval Operations, Washington, D.C. She now resides in Daytona Beach, Florida with her husband and they have one daughter.
Rear Admiral Lillian Fishburne http://www.myblackhistory.net/Lillian_Fishburne.htm
Rear Adm. Lillian Fishburne
Makiyyah Moore –
The 369th Infantry also known as the Harlem Hellfighters originated from the 15th Regiment of the New York National Guard. A regiment of African Americans and of Puerto Ricans and was the longest serving unit in World War I, spending 191 days serving in combat. The Harlem Hellfighters hold the title of one of the most decorated units in the United States Military. Like most black troops the regiment was controlled by white authority. 369th were deployed overseas to France joining the 185th Infantry Brigade in January 1918. This did not result in the best treatment as racial tension was still on a rise and the military continued to maintain their segregation policy. Some White soldiers refused to stand beside Black soldiers. It was even encouraged that the French do not interact with them, as it would lead to African Americans thinking they are important and that it could be harmful to American society after the war. However, the French recognized and welcomed them in arms.
369TH Served over 6 months and suffered 1300 casualties, the most of any U.S. Army Regiment. One of the most highlighted soldiers of the Harlem Hellfighters was PVT Henry Johnson and PVT Needham Roberts. Henry Johnson and Needham Roberts were on guard duty watching for the enemy. A sniper fired at Johnson, and he then heard wire cutters clipping through the barbed wire. A German patrol of 24 men started to attack the two soldiers. Both soldiers were injured. As they were firing back his weapon jammed from using the wrong ammunition. PVT Johnson had resulted to using his weapon as a club swinging and smashing the enemy who was trying to take PVT Roberts as a prisoner. PVT Johnson continued on with a Bolo knife that one of the German soldiers used against him. PVT Johnson had suffered from 21 wounds. He had so much adrenaline that he could not feel his wounds. PVT Johns had killed 4 Germans and injured between 0 to 20 German soldiers. The Germans fell back as PVT Johnsons reinforcements began to approach. This moment of action demonstrated courage and the definition of a true warrior.
Henry Johnson and Nadeem Roberts both survived the traumatic event. Johnson was promoted to the rank Sergeant when he recovered from his wounds. He was Nicknamed “Black Death” for his bravery. Henry Johnson and Needham Roberts received the French “Croix de Guerre” award for their courageous actions. One of Frances highest military awards. They were the first two African Americans that received that award. When 369th returned home, they participated in a parade and Sergeant Henry Johnson lead the 3,000 troops from the front. Although Johnson was a war hero he was still recognized as a second-class citizen and faced racial maltreatment from his country. Henry Johnson only began to get the recognition and acknowledgement several years after he passed. In 1996, President Bill Clinton posthumously awarded the Johnson the purple heart. Johnson was recently posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor by President Barack Obama.
The actions of 369th Regiment paved the way for future African American soldiers in combat during the war. African American soldiers were doubted and looked down upon. The Harlem Hell fighters changed the American opinion on black soldiers.
Keene, J. D. (2022). Military Service in World War I. The American Mosaic: The African American Experience. Retrieved January 31, 2022, from https://africanamerican2-abc-clio-com.ezproxy2.apus.edu/Search/Display/1400516
Tschen-Emmons, J. B. (2022). Harlem Hellfighters. The American Mosaic: The African American Experience. Retrieved January 31, 2022, from https://africanamerican2-abc-clio-com.ezproxy2.apus.edu/Search/Display/1501745
YouTube. (2020). YouTube. Retrieved January 31, 2022, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W0A1u4Fh6H8.