Help Drafting Assignment assignments already drafted HM503 Unit4 DQ TOPIC #1: Discussion topics support this unit’s objective and should be comple

Help Drafting Assignment assignments already drafted HM503

Unit4 DQ


Discussion topics support this unit’s objective and should be completed after reading all materials. Your responses ought to include original evaluation, synthesis, or analysis of the topic, and contribute to the weekly discussion in a meaningful way. You must complete all discussion topics and reply to your peers’ posts. Refer to the Discussion Board Rubric under Course Resources for additional requirements.

Topic #1: 

Current Events
Research current events related to the course topics covered and post at least two of these events to the Discussion Board. Within your posting, describe how your chosen items tie to the course so far. You may use the Library or any other outside resource for your research. Be sure to use proper citation. 

Respond Kindly to Student #1 Roxanne Donaghy

Angelenos Should Appreciate Data’s Role in Disaster Management

     When the Woolsey fire, one of the largest in California history, began to creep over the Malibu hills toward Pepperdine University three years ago on November 9, vast clouds of smoke indicated its approach. For 18 days, the Camp Fire claimed the lives of 18 people, destroyed the town of Paradise, and burned more than 150,000 acres of property in northern California. As a result, Pepperdine students and faculty were spared. It was not catastrophic, but it was simply another year in California, a unique location plagued by natural and man-made tragedies. As a result of a multi-year drought, our water supply is in jeopardy, our agricultural sector is struggling, and fire-friendly circumstances are worsening. Approximately 10,000 earthquakes occur each year in the Southern California region, although only about 15-20 of these earthquakes are bigger than magnitude 4.0. Two of the worst traffic corridors in the country were found in Los Angeles in a March 2021 research. 
     California also boasts the world’s largest data repository and the world’s most outstanding data scientists. Data on the wind, air, artificial intelligence, and even social media posts are used to help first responders better estimate the ferocity of the fire, as well as its direction and speed. Earthquake Early Warning System was launched by the California Office of Emergency Services last year, the nation’s first statewide system. Earthquakes are detected by ground motion sensors across the state and alerted to Californians via the “MyShake” app so that they can prepare in advance (Rapier, 2021). Waze, a free app that relies on actual time, crowd-sourced information, and data from users, helps cars maneuver congested highways and freeways. Additionally, public health officials were able to follow new outbreaks and provide options to stop rising instances of COVID-19 through opt-in exposure warning applications from Google and Apple in the past two years. This shows the importance of data for public health surveillance. When it comes to calamities in the making, data analytics can help. Technology like Kargo, which tracks shipments at the ports, enables shippers to make online appointments to pick up and shift cargo at the supply chain bottleneck. The use of remote app-based technologies enables municipalities to monitor in real-time for toxins in municipal water supply and clean it before it affects homes and businesses. One of California’s ongoing problems is power outages, which are often traced to excessive use of the state’s electrical grid. There are evil actors on the internet, and lawmakers must remember that “info sharing” does not automatically equate to abuse. Our domestic riches, which include data and an entrepreneurial, visionary-focused mindset capable of understanding the potential advantages to society, can be protected by state regulatory policies. This article relates to what we have learned in this course because it shows ways that California is trying to mitigate, respond, and prepare itself for the fires.


Rapier, S. (2021, November 9). Angelenos should appreciate data’s role in disaster management. Daily News.

Emergency Managers Face a Chaotic and Uncertain Future

Disasters of all kinds, from wildfires to hurricanes, are altering the roles of the nation’s emergency managers and driving them to step up their coordination and alertness to face an increasingly more turbulent future. There has been a significant shift from disasters being episodic, with a mega-event occurring every three to four years, to significant occurrences regularly occurring, many times each year, rather than on a regular cycle. Disaster, like poverty or homelessness, has become a permanent state of affairs in many places. In addition, emergency management could be radically reshaped by combining public health and climate disasters as previous big ones have done. During the past two years, there has been a stream of these massive disasters—a spate of increasing climate-driven disasters paired with a grinding, murderous pandemic, all of which has overburdened local systems that were already struggling with more profound challenges (Elbein, 2021). In addition, the drug crisis, poverty, and social upheaval have all been on the minds of emergency managers. As a result of this, emergency response has been dramatically expanded to include things that do not fall into a single discipline, like responding to a disaster. FEMA can best serve this role. Assembling a network of governmental and local actors to help communities recover faster in the event of a disaster. In order to prevent crises from occurring, the agency needs to strengthen its ties with local civil society organizations.
     Many of FEMA’s new online benefit applications did not consider the significant variations in internet access and the know-how to utilize it, as well as what would happen if the grid was knocked out, as it was in parts of Louisiana during Hurricane Ida, for example. Without electricity, there are no cellphones. However, emergency managers can help individuals by providing support and information in regions where they can come and receive help from us or via the internet. FEMA can best serve this role. Assembling a network of governmental and local actors to help communities recover faster in the event of a disaster.
     In order to better prepare for future disasters, emergency management will need to shift their perspective from looking backward to looking forward. Force people to think about the possibilities, not just rely on what we know. 


Elbein, S. (2021, October 28). Emergency managers face a chaotic and uncertain future. The Hill.

Respond Kindly to Student #2 Damon Bradshaw

Current Events

According to Sasangohar et al. (2020), the COVID-19 pandemic presented unique and complex challenges linked to disaster preparedness and management. Compared to previous pandemics and disasters, the COVID-19 outbreak resulted in an unprecedented propagation, scale, and magnitude rate. Sasangohar et al. (2020) attribute the challenges faced by response work systems in the COVID-19 pandemic with the high technical response complexity and disaster management combined with the unavailability of skills and a mental model for responding to an unprecedented disaster. Thus, it can be concluded that effective and efficient responses to disasters need proper coordination between the different system-level components, which is evidenced by the various countries working in tandem to develop a vaccine. On the same note, unlike the monsoons or hurricane seasons, the North American wildfire seasons have no prescribed date. Hessburg et al. (2021) note that the United States has in place wildfire response plans, which were proved ineffective as various states were fighting multiple wildfires simultaneously. In addition, the major drought across Western Canada and U.S stretching from the Pacific cutting across the Midwest majorly contributed to the unprecedented scales of the wildfires overwhelming the disaster management plans in place. The COVID-19 pandemic and the 2021 American wildfires are related to the current course as they necessitate disaster preparedness, and management plans to mitigate the effects and impacts of the disasters.
 Hessburg, P. F., Prichard, S. J., Hagmann, R. K., Povak, N. A., & Lake, F. K. (2021). Wildfire and climate change adaptation of western North American forests: A case for intentional management. Ecological Applications, e02432.
Sasangohar, F., Moats, J., Mehta, R., & Peres, S. C. (2020). Disaster ergonomics: Human factors in COVID-19 pandemic emergency management. Human Factors, 62(7), 1061-1068.


Need for Preparedness
As outlined in the readings, communicating the need for preparedness can be a very daunting task. During Hurricane Katrina the local news channels showed thousands of residents stranded at the Superdome. Some theorists argued that the local, state, and federal governments should have played a larger role in the evacuation process, while others argued that the individual residents should have taken proper precautions. Explore these arguments further in the discussion. How much of a responsibility for preparedness rests with the individual? With the community? With the local, state, and/or federal government?

Respond Kindly to Student #1 Diego Salgado

Need for Preparedness

During times of crisis, the local, state, the federal governments have a considerable duty to effectively communicate critical information such as evacuation measures with the local populace. Thus, it is essential to understand that individual residents need to take additional precautions to ensure their safety. Hurricane Katrina’s lack of response and evacuation preparedness was evident.
            The failure to take the necessary precaution to evacuate left thousands of residents stranded not only at the Superdome but also at hospitals, nursing homes, and several shelters (Wade, 2015).  According to the U.S. House of Representatives (2006), the general/upper-class evacuation went relatively well in all affected states. “Despite adequate warning 56 hours before landfall, Governor Blanco and Mayor Nagin delayed ordering a mandatory evacuation in New Orleans until 19 hours before landfall” (p. 2). Thus, the government’s lack of clear and concise information leads to the death and suffering of thousands of residents.
            The government should have considered that more than a quarter of people living in New Orleans lived below the poverty line when Hurricane Katrina hit. Consequently, many of them did not own a car or have the necessary resources to evacuate. People and communities have a responsibility to help themselves during a crisis.
            However, when the same people who did not have the means to leave only got a 48 hours notification about the storm, it created problems and unexpected expectations for them to find ways to evacuate (Wade, 2015). Overall, the responsibility and preparedness rest with the individual, community, local, state, and federal government at their respective levels. Ultimately, it is the government that bears the most significant responsibility.


U.S. House of Representatives. (2006, February). 
A failure of initiative: Final report of the select bipartisan committee to investigate the preparation for and response to hurricane Katrina
. Retrieved from
Wade, L. (2015, August 31). Who didn’t evacuate for Hurricane Katrina? Pacific Standard.

Respond Kindly to Student #2 Blake Carter
                The theorists arguing that the individual residents should have taken proper precautions fail to account for the demographics of Louisiana. According to a research paper published in the journal, Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness:
Forty-nine percent of victims were people 75 years old and older. Fifty-three percent of victims were men; 51% were black; and 42% were white. In Orleans Parish, the mortality rate among blacks was 1.7 to 4 times higher than that among whites for all people 18 years old and older. People 75 years old and older were significantly more likely to be storm victims (Brunkard, Namulanda, & Ratard, 2008, p. 1)
These statistics are important for a number of reasons. The vast majority of fatalities were either impoverished minorities or the elderly. These groups did not have the means to take the proper precautions. Moreover, “…some 112,000 of New Orleans’ nearly 500,000 people did not have access to a car” (History, 2021). These means that they did not even have the transportation to leave. Many of these people stayed behind, not because they wanted to but because they did not have the financial means of leaving. Impoverished communities are already struggling just to survive on a daily basis. Now you throw a natural disaster into the mix and it is a catastrophe waiting to happen. Trying to shift the blame on the individual residents for a failure of government action is not helpful and it would just lead to the government underperforming again the next time a disaster would strike.


Brunkard, J., Namulanda, G., & Ratard, R. (2008). Hurricane Katrina Deaths, Louisiana, 2005. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, 1-9.
History. (2021, August 31). Hurricane Katrina. Retrieved from History:


Preparedness: Community and Business Sector Partners
It is a recognized principle that a plan involving the coordinated efforts of multiple resources will produce the best results. The private sector is emerging as an increasingly important component as a sector partner. As an emergency coordinator, how would you recruit and involve community and business sector partners in preparedness and response programs and activities?

Respond Kindly to Student #1 Damon Bradshaw

Preparedness: Community and Business Sector Partners

An emergency coordinator seeking to recruit and collaborate with the community and business sectors in disaster preparedness and response engages the full capacity of both the non-profit and profit sectors, encompassing disability, faith-based, and business organizations, and the public in general (Dharmasena et al., 2020). Other partners include the federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial governments. Dharmasena et al. (2020) argument to the involvement of these groups with interests in the area susceptible to disasters to undertake to form partnerships for developing disaster preparedness and response activities and programs through contributions and conducting emergency training and drills.
Dharmasena, M. G. I., Toledano, M., & Weaver, C. K. (2020). The role of public relations in building community resilience to natural disasters: Perspectives from Sri Lanka and New Zealand. Journal of Communication Management.

Respond Kindly to Student #2 Diego Salgado

 Preparedness: Community and Business Sector Partners

The involvement of the community and business sector partners in preparedness and response is vital to the recovery efforts after a disaster takes place. In addition, no other government organization is as efficient in the logistical aspect as the private sector. Thus, establishing a successful alliance with several private organizations will help collaborate between businesses, critical infrastructures, and government stakeholders. Moreover, doing so could prevent or mitigate the potential of failures across a manifold of sectors.
            As an emergency coordinator, the best way to recruit and involve the community and business sector partners is to follow the five steps to establish public-private partnerships. “Define Purpose of Partnership, Identity Likely Partners, Discuss Value of Partnership with Likely Partners, Secure Commitment to Partnership, and Finalize Objectives and Activities” (Emergency Management Institute, n.d.) are vital to gaining trust and cooperation from several entities.
            For instance, during Hurricane Katrina, public-private organizations such as Wal-Mart provided $17 million cash donations to aid emergency relief, among other heavy contributions to the Bush-Clinton Katrina funds, the Salvation Army, and the American Red Cross. In addition, Walmart provided drivers and several trucks to transport relief supplies, water, food, and clothing to assist residents of Louisiana and Mississippi (Hurricane Katrina information, 2005). Like Walmart, there are several other partnerships vital to the success of recovery. Therefore, it is essential to recruit other communities and the business sector partners to better emergency preparedness and response. 


Emergency Management Institute. (n.d.). IS-0662: Improving preparedness and resilience through public-private partnerships.

Hurricane Katrina information. (2005, September 3). Wal-Mart’s response to Hurricane Katrina. Corporate – US.

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