# Finance On The Web 2 parts with 3 questions each. No plagiarism  Table 19.6 is a simplified book balance sheet for Nike in November 2017. Here is some fu

Finance On The Web 2 parts with 3 questions each. No plagiarism

Table 19.6 is a simplified book balance sheet for Nike in November 2017. Here is some further
information:
● ● ● ● ●
Number of outstanding shares (N) 1.32billion
Price per share (P) \$60
Beta 0.55
Treasury bill rate 0.8%
20-year Treasury bond rate 2.7%
Cost of debt (rD) 3.8%
Marginal tax rate (from 2018) 21%
⟩ TABLE 19.6 Simplified book balance sheet for Nike, November 2017
(figures in \$ millions)
Current assets \$16,582 Current liabilities \$ 6,750
Net property, plant, and equipment 4,117 Long-term debt 3,472
Investments and other assets 3,356 Other liabilities 2,075
Shareholders’ equity 11,758
Total \$24,055 Total \$24,055
a. Calculate Nike’s WACC. Use the capital asset pricing model and the additional information
given above. Make additional assumptions and approximations as necessary.
b. What is Nike’s opportunity cost of capital?
c. Finally, go to finance.yahoo.com and update your answers to parts (a) and (b).

—‐————————–

Go to finance.yahoo.com. Check out the delayed quotes for Amazon options for different exer-
cise prices and maturities. Take the mean of the bid and ask prices.
a. Confirm that higher exercise prices mean lower call prices and higher put prices.
b. Confirm that longer maturity means higher prices for both puts and calls.
c. Choose an Amazon put and call with the same exercise price and maturity. Confirm that
put–call parity holds (approximately). (Note: You will have to use an up-to-date risk-free
interest rate.) 562 Part Six Options

bre13901_ch20_542-562 562 10/12/18 03:21 PM

32. Option values Three six-month call options are traded on Hogswill stock:

◗ FIGURE 20.13
Some complicated
position diagrams. See
Problem 30.

(a) (b)

(c) (d )

Exercise Price Call Option Price

\$  90 \$  5

100   11

110  15

How would you make money by trading in Hogswill options? (Hint: Draw a graph with the
option price on the vertical axis and the ratio of stock price to exercise price on the horizontal
axis. Plot the three Hogswill options on your graph. Does this fit with what you know about
how option prices should vary with the ratio of stock price to exercise price?) Now look in the
newspaper at options with the same maturity but different exercise prices. Can you find any
money-making opportunities?

Go to finance.yahoo.com. Check out the delayed quotes for Amazon options for different exer-
cise prices and maturities. Take the mean of the bid and ask prices.
a. Confirm that higher exercise prices mean lower call prices and higher put prices.
b. Confirm that longer maturity means higher prices for both puts and calls.
c. Choose an Amazon put and call with the same exercise price and maturity. Confirm that

put–call parity holds (approximately). (Note: You will have to use an up-to-date risk-free
interest rate.)

● ● ● ● ●

FINANCE ON
THE WEB

Final PDF to printer

Cover
Principles of Corporate Finance
Dedication
Preface
Guided Tour
Supplements
For Students
Brief Contents
Contents
Part One: Value
Chapter 1: Introduction to Corporate Finance
1-1 Corporate Investment and Financing Decisions
Investment Decisions
Financing Decisions
What Is a Corporation?
The Role of the Financial Manager

1-2 The Financial Goal of the Corporation
Shareholders Want Managers to Maximize Market Value
A Fundamental Result
Should Managers Look After the Interests of Their Shareholders?
Agency Problems and Corporate Governance

1-3 Preview of Coming Attractions
Summary
Problem Sets
Appendix: Why Maximizing Shareholder Value Makes Sense

Chapter 2: How to Calculate Present Values
2-1 Future Values and Present Values
Calculating Future Values
Calculating Present Values
Valuing an Investment Opportunity
Net Present Value
Risk and Present Value
Present Values and Rates of Return
Calculating Present Values When There Are Multiple Cash Flows
The Opportunity Cost of Capital

2-2 Looking for Shortcuts—Perpetuities and Annuities
How to Value Perpetuities
How to Value Annuities
Valuing Annuities Due
Calculating Annual Payments
Future Value of an Annuity

2-3 More Shortcuts—Growing Perpetuities and Annuities
Growing Perpetuities
Growing Annuities

2-4 How Interest Is Paid and Quoted
Continuous Compounding

Summary
Problem Sets
Finance on the Web

Chapter 3: Valuing Bonds
3-1 Using the Present Value Formula to Value Bonds
A Short Trip to Paris to Value a Government Bond
Back to the United States: Semiannual Coupons and Bond Prices

3-2 How Bond Prices Vary with Interest Rates
Duration and Volatility

3-3 The Term Structure of Interest Rates
Spot Rates, Bond Prices, and the Law of One Price
Measuring the Term Structure
Why the Discount Factor Declines as Futurity Increases—and a Digression on Money Machines

3-4 Explaining the Term Structure
Expectations Theory of the Term Structure
Introducing Risk
Inflation and Term Structure

3-5 Real and Nominal Rates of Interest
Indexed Bonds and the Real Rate of Interest
What Determines the Real Rate of Interest?
Inflation and Nominal Interest Rates

3-6 The Risk of Default
Corporate Bonds and Default Risk
Sovereign Bonds and Default Risk

Summary
Problem Sets
Finance on the Web

Chapter 4: The Value of Common Stocks
4-1 How Common Stocks Are Traded

4-2 How Common Stocks Are Valued
Valuation by Comparables
Stock Prices and Dividends

4-3 Estimating the Cost of Equity Capital
Using the DCF Model to Set Water, Gas, and Electricity Prices
Dangers Lurk in Constant-Growth Formulas

4-4 The Link between Stock Price and Earnings per Share
Calculating the Present Value of Growth Opportunities for FledglingElectronics

4-5 Valuing a Business by Discounted Cash Flow
Valuation Format
Estimating Horizon Value
Free Cash Flow, Dividends, and Repurchases

Summary
Problem Sets
Finance on the Web
Mini-Case: Reeby Sports

Chapter 5: Net Present Value and Other Investment Criteria
5-1 A Review of the Basics
Net Present Value’s Competitors
Three Points to Remember about NPV

5-2 Book Rate of Return and Payback
Book Rate of Return
Payback
Discounted Payback

5-3 Internal (or Discounted Cash Flow) Rate of Return
Calculating the IRR
The IRR Rule
Pitfall 1—Lending or Borrowing?
Pitfall 2—Multiple Rates of Return
Pitfall 3—Mutually Exclusive Projects
Pitfall 4—What Happens When There Is More Than One Opportunity Cost of Capital
The Verdict on IRR

5-4 Choosing Capital Investments When Resources Are Limited
An Easy Problem in Capital Rationing
Uses of Capital Rationing Models

Summary
Problem Sets
Mini-Case: Vegetron’s CFO Calls Again

Chapter 6: Making Investment Decisions with the Net Present Value Rule
6-1 Applying the Net Present Value Rule
Rule 1: Discount Cash Flows, Not Profits
Rule 2: Discount Incremental Cash Flows
Rule 3: Treat Inflation Consistently
Rule 4: Separate Investment and Financing Decisions
Rule 5: Remember to Deduct Taxes

6-2 Corporate Income Taxes
U.S. Corporate Income Tax Reform

6-3 Example—IM&C’s Fertilizer Project
The Three Elements of Project Cash Flows
Forecasting the Fertilizer Project’s Cash Flows
Accelerated Depreciation and First-Year Expensing
Project Analysis
Calculating NPV in Other Countries and Currencies

6-4 Using the NPV Rule to Choose among Projects
Problem 1: The Investment Timing Decision
Problem 2: The Choice between Long- and Short-Lived Equipment
Problem 3: When to Replace an Old Machine
Problem 4: Cost of Excess Capacity

Summary
Problem Sets
Mini-Case: New Economy Transport (A)
New Economy Transport (B)

Part Two: Risk
Chapter 7: Introduction to Risk and Return
7-1 Over a Century of Capital Market History in One Easy Lesson
Arithmetic Averages and Compound Annual Returns
Using Historical Evidence to Evaluate Today’s Cost of Capital

7-2 Diversification and Portfolio Risk
Variance and Standard Deviation
Measuring Variability
How Diversification Reduces Risk

7-3 Calculating Portfolio Risk
General Formula for Computing Portfolio Risk
Do I Really Have to Add up 36 Million Boxes?

7-4 How Individual Securities Affect Portfolio Risk
Market Risk Is Measured by Beta
Why Security Betas Determine Portfolio Risk

Summary
Problem Sets
Finance on the Web

8 Portfolio Theory and the Capital Asset Pricing Model
8-1 Harry Markowitz and the Birth of Portfolio Theory
Combining Stocks into Portfolios
We Introduce Borrowing and Lending

8-2 The Relationship between Risk and Return
Some Estimates of Expected Returns
Review of the Capital Asset Pricing Model
What If a Stock Did Not Lie on the Security Market Line?

8-3 Validity and Role of the Capital Asset Pricing Model
Tests of the Capital Asset Pricing Model
Assumptions behind the Capital Asset Pricing Model

8-4 Some Alternative Theories
Arbitrage Pricing Theory
A Comparison of the Capital Asset Pricing Model and Arbitrage Pricing Theory
The Three-Factor Model

Summary
Problem Sets
Finance on the Web
Mini-Case: John and Marsha on Portfolio Selection

9 Risk and the Cost of Capital
9-1 Company and Project Costs of Capital
Perfect Pitch and the Cost of Capital
Debt and the Company Cost of Capital

9-2 Measuring the Cost of Equity
Estimating Beta
The Expected Return on CSX’s Common Stock
CSX’s After-Tax Weighted-Average Cost of Capital
CSX’s Asset Beta

9-3 Analyzing Project Risk
What Determines Asset Betas?
Don’t Be Fooled by Diversifiable Risk
Avoid Fudge Factors in Discount Rates
Discount Rates for International Projects

9-4 Certainty Equivalents—Another Way to Adjust for Risk
Valuation by Certainty Equivalents
When to Use a Single Risk-Adjusted Discount Rate for Long-Lived Assets
A Common Mistake
When You Cannot Use a Single Risk-Adjusted Discount Rate for Long-Lived Assets

Summary
Problem Sets
Finance on the Web
Mini-Case: The Jones Family Incorporated

Part Three: Best Practices in Capital Budgeting
Chapter 10: Project Analysis
10-1 Sensitivity and Scenario Analysis
Value of Information
Limits to Sensitivity Analysis
Scenario Analysis

10-2 Break-Even Analysis and Operating Leverage
Break-Even Analysis
Operating Leverage and the Break-Even Point

10-3 Monte Carlo Simulation
Simulating the Electric Scooter Project

10-4 Real Options and Decision Trees
The Option to Expand
The Option to Abandon
Production Options
Timing Options
More on Decision Trees
Pro and Con Decision Trees

Summary
Problem Sets
Mini-Case: Waldo County

Chapter 11: How to Ensure That Projects Truly Have Positive NPVs
11-1 How Firms Organize the Investment Process
The Capital Budget
Project Authorizations—and the Problem of Biased Forecasts
Postaudits

11-2 Look First to Market Values
The BMW and Your Sporting Idol

11-3 Economic Rents and Competitive Advantage
11-4 Marvin Enterprises Decides to Exploit a New Technology—an Example
Forecasting Prices of Gargle Blasters
The Value of Marvin’s New Expansion
Alternative Expansion Plans
The Value of Marvin Stock
The Lessons of Marvin Enterprises

Summary
Problem Sets
Mini-Case: Ecsy-Cola

Chapter 12: Agency Problems and Investment
12-1 What Agency Problems Should You Watch Out For?
Agency Problems Don’t Stop at the Top
Risk Taking

12-2 Monitoring
Boards of Directors
Auditors
Lenders
Shareholders
Takeovers

12-3 Management Compensation
Compensation Facts and Controversies
The Economics of Incentive Compensation
The Specter of Short-Termism

12-4 Measuring and Rewarding Performance: Residual Income and EVA
Residual Income or Economic Value Added (EVA®)
Pros and Cons of EVA

12-5 Biases in Accounting Measures of Performance
Example: Measuring the Profitability of the Nodhead Supermarket
Measuring Economic Profitability
Do the Biases Wash Out in the Long Run?
What Can We Do about Biases in Accounting Profitability Measures?

Summary
Problem Sets

Part Four: Financing Decisions and Market Efficiency
Chapter 13: Efficient Markets and Behavioral Finance
13-1 Differences between Investment and Financing Decisions
We Always Come Back to NPV

13-2 The Efficient Market Hypothesis
A Startling Discovery: Price Changes Are Random
Random Walks: The Evidence
Semistrong Market Efficiency: The Evidence
Strong Market Efficiency: The Evidence

13-3 Bubbles and Market Efficiency
13-4 Behavioral Finance
Sentiment
Limits to Arbitrage
Incentive Problems and the Financial Crisis of 2008–2009

13-5 The Five Lessons of Market Efficiency
Lesson 1: Markets Have No Memory
Lesson 2: Trust Market Prices
Lesson 4: The Do-It-Yourself Alternative
Lesson 5: Seen One Stock, Seen Them All
What If Markets Are Not Efficient? Implications for the Financial Manager
Summary
Problem Sets
Finance on the Web

Chapter 14: An Overview of Corporate Financing
14-1 Patterns of Corporate Financing
Do Firms Rely Too Much on Internal Funds?
How Much Do Firms Borrow?

14-2 Common Stock
Ownership of the Corporation
Voting Procedures
Dual-Class Shares and Private Benefits
Equity in Disguise
Preferred Stock

14-3 Debt
Debt Comes in Many Forms
A Debt by Any Other Name
Variety’s the Very Spice of Life

14-4 Financial Markets and Intermediaries
Financial Markets
Financial Intermediaries
Investment Funds
Financial Institutions

14-5 The Role of Financial Markets and Intermediaries
The Payment Mechanism
Borrowing and Lending
Pooling Risk
Information Provided by Financial Markets
The Financial Crisis of 2007–2009

Summary
Problem Sets
Finance on the Web

Chapter 15: How Corporations Issue Securities
15-1 Venture Capital
The Venture Capital Market

15-2 The Initial Public Offering
The Public-Private Choice
Arranging an Initial Public Offering
The Sale of Marvin Stock
The Underwriters
Costs of a New Issue
Underpricing of IPOs
Hot New-Issue Periods
The Long-Run Performance of IPO Stocks

15-3 Alternative Issue Procedures for IPOs
Types of Auction: A Digression

15-4 Security Sales by Public Companies
General Cash Offers
International Security Issues
The Costs of a General Cash Offer
Market Reaction to Stock Issues
Rights Issues

15-5 Private Placements and Public Issues
Summary
Problem Sets
Finance on the Web
Appendix: Marvin’s New-Issue Prospectus

Part Five: Payout Policy and Capital Structure
Chapter 16: Payout Policy
How Firms Pay Dividends
How Firms Repurchase Stock

16-2 The Information Content of Dividends and Repurchases
The Information Content of Share Repurchases

16-3 Dividends or Repurchases? The Payout Controversy
Payout Policy Is Irrelevant in Perfect Capital Markets
Dividends or Repurchases? An Example
Stock Repurchases and DCF Models of Share Price
Dividends and Share Issues

16-4 The Rightists
Payout Policy, Investment Policy, and Management Incentives

16-5 Taxes and the Radical Left
Empirical Evidence on Dividends and Taxes
Alternative Tax Systems

16-6 Payout Policy and the Life Cycle of the Firm
Payout and Corporate Governance

Summary
Problem Sets

Chapter 17: Does Debt Policy Matter?
17-1 The Effect of Financial Leverage in a Competitive Tax-Free Economy
Enter Modigliani and Miller
The Law of Conservation of Value
An Example of Proposition 1

17-2 Financial Risk and Expected Returns
Proposition 2
Leverage and the Cost of Equity
How Changing Capital Structure Affects Beta
Watch Out for Hidden Leverage

17-3 No Magic in Financial Leverage
Today’s Unsatisfied Clienteles Are Probably Interested in Exotic Securities
Imperfections and Opportunities

17-4 A Final Word on the After-Tax Weighted-Average Cost of Capital
Summary
Problem Sets
Mini-Case: Claxton Drywall Comes to the Rescue

Chapter 18: How Much Should a Corporation Borrow?
18-1 Corporate Taxes
How Do Interest Tax Shields Contribute to the Value of Stockholders’ Equity?
Recasting Johnson & Johnson’s Capital Structure
MM and Taxes

18-2 Corporate and Personal Taxes
18-3 Costs of Financial Distress
Bankruptcy Costs
Evidence on Bankruptcy Costs
Direct versus Indirect Costs of Bankruptcy
Financial Distress without Bankruptcy
Debt and Incentives
Risk Shifting: The First Game
Refusing to Contribute Equity Capital: The Second Game
And Three More Games, Briefly
What the Games Cost
Costs of Distress Vary with Type of Asset
The Trade-Off Theory of Capital Structure

18-4 The Pecking Order of Financing Choices
Debt and Equity Issues with Asymmetric Information
Implications of the Pecking Order
The Trade-Off Theory vs. the Pecking-Order Theory—Some Evidence
The Bright Side and the Dark Side of Financial Slack
Is There a Theory of Optimal Capital Structure?

Summary
Problem Sets
Finance on the Web

Chapter 19: Financing and Valuation
19-1 The After-Tax Weighted-Average Cost of Capital
Review of Assumptions
Mistakes People Make in Using the Weighted-Average Formula

Valuing Rio Corporation
Estimating Horizon Value
WACC vs. the Flow-to-Equity Method

19-3 Using WACC in Practice
Unlevering and Relevering Betas
The Importance of Rebalancing
The Modigliani–Miller Formula, Plus Some Final Advice

APV for the Perpetual Crusher
Other Financing Side Effects
APV and Limits on Interest Deductions
APV for International Investments

Summary
Problem Sets
Finance on the Web
Appendix: Discounting Safe, Nominal Cash Flows

Part Six: Options
Chapter 20: Understanding Options
20-1 Calls, Puts, and Shares
Call Options and Position Diagrams
Put Options
Selling Calls and Puts
Position Diagrams Are Not Profit Diagrams

20-2 Financial Alchemy with Options
Spotting the Option

20-3 What Determines Option Values?
Risk and Option Values

Summary
Problem Sets
Finance on the Web

Chapter 21: Valuing Options
21-1 A Simple Option-Valuation Model
Why Discounted Cash Flow Won’t Work for Options
Constructing Option Equivalents from Common Stocks and Borrowing
Valuing the Amazon Put Option

21-2 The Binomial Method for Valuing Options
Example: The Two-Step Binomial Method
The General Binomial Method
The Binomial Method and Decision Trees

21-3 The Black–Scholes Formula
Using the Black–Scholes Formula
The Risk of an Option
The Black–Scholes Formula and the Binomial Method

21-4 Black–Scholes in Action
Executive Stock Options
Warrants
Portfolio Insurance
Calculating Implied Volatilities

21-5 Option Values at a Glance
21-6 The Option Menagerie
Summary
Problem Sets
Finance on the Web
Mini-Case: Bruce Honiball’s Invention

Chapter 22: Real Options
22-1 The Value of Follow-On Investment Opportunities
Other Expansion Options

22-2 The Timing Option
Valuing the Malted Herring Option
Optimal Timing for Real Estate Development

22-3 The Abandonment Option
Bad News for the Perpetual Crusher
Abandonment Value and Project Life
Temporary Abandonment

22-4 Flexible Production and Procurement
Aircraft Purchase Options

22-5 Investment in Pharmaceutical R&D
22-6 Valuing Real Options
A Conceptual Problem?
Practical Challenges

Summary
Problem Sets

Part Seven: Debt Financing
Chapter 23: Credit Risk and the Value of Corporate Debt
23-1 Yields on Corporate Debt

23-2 Valuing the Option to Default
The Value of Corporate Equity
A Digression: Valuing Government Financial Guarantees

23-3 Bond Ratings and the Probability of Default
23-4 Predicting the Probability of Default
Statistical Models of Default
Structural Models of Default

Summary
Problem Sets
Finance on the Web

Chapter 24: The Many Different Kinds of Debt
24-1 Long-Term Bonds
Bond Terms
Security and Seniority
Asset-Backed Securities
Call Provisions
Sinking Funds
Bond Covenants
Privately Placed Bonds
Foreign Bonds and Eurobonds

24-2 Convertible Securities and Some Unusual Bonds
The Value of a Convertible at Maturity
Forcing Conversion
Why Do Companies Issue Convertibles?
Valuing Convertible Bonds
A Variation on Convertible Bonds: The Bond–Warrant Package
Innovation in the Bond Market

24-3 Bank Loans
Commitment
Maturity
Rate of Interest
Syndicated Loans
Security
Loan Covenants

24-4 Commercial Paper and Medium-Term Notes
Commercial Paper
Medium-Term Notes

Summary
Problem Sets
Mini-Case: The Shocking Demise of Mr. Thorndike
Appendix: Project Finance 660Appendix Further Reading

Chapter 25: Leasing
25-1 What Is a Lease?
25-2 Why Lease?
Sensible Reasons for Leasing
Some Dubious Reasons for Leasing

25-3 Operating Leases
Example of an Operating Lease

25-4 Valuing Financial Leases
Example of a Financial Lease
Who Really Owns the Leased Asset?
Leasing and the Internal Revenue Service
A First Pass at Valuing a Lease Contract
The Story So Far
Financial Leases When There Is No Interest Tax Shield

25-5 When Do Financial Leases Pay?
Leasing around the World

25-6 Leveraged Leases
Summary
Problem Sets

Part Eight: Risk Management
Chapter 26: Managing Risk
26-1 Why Manage Risk?
Reducing the Risk of Cash Shortfalls or Financial Distress
Agency Costs May Be Mitigated by Risk Management
The Evidence on Risk Management

26-2 Insurance
26-3 Reducing Risk with Options
26-4 Forward and Futures Contracts
A Simple Forward Contract
Futures Exchanges
Trading and Pricing Financial Futures Contracts
Spot and Futures Prices—Commodities

26-5 Swaps
Interest Rate Swaps
Currency Swaps
Some Other Swaps

26-6 How to Set Up a Hedge
Hedging Interest Rate Risk
Hedge Ratios and Basis Risk

26-7 Is “Derivative” a Four-Letter Word?
Summary
Problem Sets
Finance on the Web

Chapter 27: Managing International Risks
27-1 The Foreign Exchange Market
27-2 Some Basic Relationships
Interest Rates and Exchange Rates
The Forward Premium and Changes in Spot Rates
Changes in the Exchange Rate and Inflation Rates
Interest Rates and Inflation Rates
Is Life Really That Simple?

27-3 Hedging Currency Risk
Transaction Exposure and Economic Exposure

27-4 Exchange Risk and International Investment Decisions
The Cost of Capital for International Investments

27-5 Political Risk
Summary
Problem Sets
Finance on the Web
Mini-Case: Exacta, S.a.

Part Nine: Financial Planning and Working Capital Management
Chapter 28: Financial Analysis
28-1 Financial Ratios
28-2 Financial Statements
28-3 Home Depot’s Financial Statements
The Balance Sheet
The Income Statement

28-4 Measuring Home Depot’s Performance
Accounting Rates of Return
Problems with EVA and Accounting Rates of Return

28-5 Measuring Efficiency
28-6 Analyzing the Return on Assets: The Du Pont System
The Du Pont System

28-7 Measuring Leverage
Leverage and the Return on Equity

28-8 Measuring Liquidity
28-9 Interpreting Financial Ratios
Summary
Problem Sets
Finance on the Web

Chapter 29: Financial Planning
29-1 Links between Short-Term and Long-Term Financing Decisions
29-2 Tracing Changes in Cash
The Cash Cycle

29-3 Cash Budgeting
29-4 Dynamic’s Short-Term Financial Plan
Dynamic Mattress’s Financing Plan
Evaluating the Plan
A Note on Short-Term Financial Planning Models

29-5 Long-Term Financial Planning
Why Build Financial Plans?
A Long-Term Financial Planning Model for Dynamic Mattress
Pitfalls in Model Design
Choosing a Plan

29-6 Growth and External Financing
Summary
Problem Sets
Finance on the Web

Chapter 30: Working Capital Management
30-1 The Composition of Working Capital
30-2 Inventories
30-3 Credit Management
Terms of Sale
The Promise to Pay
Credit Analysis
The Credit Decision
Collection Policy

30-4 Cash
How Purchases Are Paid For
Speeding Up Check Collections
International Cash Management
Paying for Bank Services

30-5 Marketable Securities
Tax Strategies
Investment Choices
Calculating the Yield on Money Market Investments
Returns on Money Market Investments
The International Money Market
Money Market Instruments

Summary
Problem Sets
Finance on the Web

Part Ten: Mergers, Corporate Control, and Governance
Chapter 31: Mergers
31-1 Sensible Motives for Mergers
Economies of Scale
Economies of Vertical Integration
Complementary Resources
Surplus Funds
Eliminating Inefficiencies
Industry Consolidation

31-2 Some Dubious Reasons for Mergers
Diversification
Increasing Earnings per Share: The Bootstrap Game
Lower Financing Costs

31-3 Estimating Merger Gains and Costs
Right and Wrong Ways to Estimate the Benefits of Mergers
More on Estimating Costs—What If the Target’s Stock Price Anticipates the Merger?
Estimating Cost When the Merger Is Financed by Stock
Asymmetric Information

31-4 The Mechanics of a Merger
Mergers, Antitrust Law, and Popular Opposition
The Form of Acquisition
Merger Accounting
Some Tax Considerations
Cross-Border Mergers and Tax Inversion

31-5 Proxy Fights, Takeovers, and the Market for Corporate Control
Proxy Contests
Takeovers
Valeant Bids for Allergan
Takeover Defenses
Who Gains Most in Mergers?

31-6 Merger Waves and Merger Profitability
Merger Waves
Merger Announcements and the Stock Price
Merger Profitability
Do Mergers Generate Net Benefits?

Summary
Problem Sets
Appendix: Conglomerate Mergers and Value Additivity

Chapter 32: Corporate Restructuring
The RJR Nabisco LBO
Barbarians at the Gate?
Leveraged Restructurings
LBOs and Leveraged Restructurings

32-2 The Private-Equity Market
Private-Equity Partnerships
Are Private-Equity Funds Today’s Conglomerates?

32-3 Fusion and Fission in Corporate Finance
Spin-Offs
Carve-Outs
Asset Sales
Privatization and Nationalization

32-4 Bankruptcy
Is Chapter 11 Efficient?
Workouts
Alternative Bankruptcy Procedures

Summary
Problem Sets

Chapter 33: Governance and Corporate Control around the World
33-1 Financial Markets and Institutions
Investor Protection and the Development of Financial Markets

33-2 Ownership, Control, and Governance
Ownership and Control in Japan
Ownership and Control in Germany
European Boards of Directors
Shareholders versus Stakeholders
Ownership and Control in Other Countries
Conglomerates Revisited

33-3 Do These Differences Matter?
Risk and Short-Termism
Growth Industries and Declining Industries
Transparency and Governance

Summary
Problem Sets

Part Eleven: Conclusion
Chapter 34: Conclusion: What We Do and Do Not Know about Finance
34-1 What We Do Know: The Seven Most Important Ideas in Finance
1. Net Present Value
2. The Capital Asset Pricing Model
3. Efficient Capital Markets
4. Value Additivity and the Law of Conservation of Value
5. Capital Structure Theory
6. Option Theory
7. Agency Theory

34-2 What We Do Not Know: 10 Unsolved Problems in Finance
1. What Determines Project Risk and Present Value?
2. Risk and Return—What Have We Missed?
3. How Important Are the Exceptions to the Efficient-Market Theory?
4. Is Management an Off-Balance-Sheet Liability?
5. How Can We Explain the Success of New Securities and New Markets?
6. How Can We Resolve the Payout Controversy?
7. What Risks Should a Firm Take?
8. What Is the Value of Liquidity?
9. How Can We Explain Merger Waves?
10. Why Are Financial Systems So Prone to Crisis?

34-3 A Final Word

APPENDIX
GLOSSARY
INDEX