due tomorrow ….. child development this is due tomorrow and no extended time…..  Pick 1 or 2 of the following websites:   https://www.cappaonline.co

due tomorrow ….. child development this is due tomorrow and no extended time….. 

Pick 1 or 2 of the following websites: 


California Child Care Advocacy Groups











Do the following: 

 1. Describe one or two agencies or organizations that you explored that were of particular interest to you

list the organization(s)
describe what they do (specifically) to support children and families

2.  Tell us why this/these organization(s) are important to you

do you have a personal connection? if so describe how/what
how do you think their work, if successful, will change the world for young children and families?

3. Describe how the organization/agency’s work relates to one or more concepts from our course.

Use the attachment to make reference to certain subjects in the book. Connect website with book subjucts. 

AT least 1 page thorough answers is fine.  No reference page and no cover page needed Child, Family,
and Community
Early Care and Education

Seventh Edition

Janet Gonzalez-Mena

Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River
Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto

Delhi Mexico City Sao Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo

A01_GONZ2275_07_SE_FM.indd 1 10/14/15 8:19 PM

Vice President and Editorial Director: Jeffery W. Johnston
Executive Editor: Julie Peters
Editorial Assistant: Pamela DiBerardino
Developmnet Editor: Jon Theiss
Executive Product Marketing Manager: Chris Barry
Executive Field Marketing Manager: Krista Clark

Program Manager: Megan Moffo
Production Project Manager: Janet Domingo
Full-Service Project Management: Lumina Datamatics
Composition: Lumina Datamatics

Credits and acknowledgments for material borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in this textbook
appear on the appropriate page within the text.

Every effort has been made to provide accurate and current Internet information in this book. However, the Internet and
information posted on it are constantly changing, so it is inevitable that some of the Internet addresses listed in this text-
book will change.

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009, 2006, 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United
States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright, and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit
a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey
07458, or you may fax your request to 201-236-3290.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Gonzalez-Mena, Janet, author.

Child, family, and community : family-centered early care and education / Janet Gonzalez-Mena. — Seventh edition.
pages cm

Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-0-13-404227-5 (alk. paper)
1. Socialization. 2. Child rearing. 3. Families. I. Title.
HQ783.G59 2017


10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

ISBN 10: 0-13-404227-1
ISBN 13: 978-0-13-404227-5

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To Shaquam Kimberly Edwards, contributor to this edition.
Shaquam took on what I consider the hardest part of this revision—

making it into an e-book. She stepped in willingly and capably to
meet the creative challenges of bringing the book to life digitally. I’m

forever grateful for her contributions! I wrote the first edition of this
book on a typewriter. Putting later editions on the computer was a big
step forward for me. Shaquam took me into the e-book era, gracefully

and enthusiastically, for which I’m thankful.

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A seminal report published by the National Association for the Education of Young
Children (NAEYC) was released just as this revision was about to go to press, titled
“Transforming the Workforce for Children Birth Through Age 8: A Unifying Founda-
tion.” One of the themes of the report relates to making higher education programs
for professionals more effective with a goal of supporting consistent quality. This
report couldn’t be more timely coming out as it did at the same time as the 7th
revision of Child, Family, and Community. We are ready for change as a nation. We are
ready to be sure that those who work with young children get an excellent education
to prepare them for further study, for being a contributing part of the community,
and for all-round mature development. Right in line with transforming the workforce
comes the transformation of this Child, Family, and Community textbook. The 7th edi-
tion, now in an e-text format, is startlingly different from the many revisions that
preceded it.

This revision, as others in the past, focuses on contexts—the contexts in which
children are reared and educated. It’s not about “the child” or even “children” because
those words have no meaning by themselves. Each child is born and raised in mul-
tiple social contexts. This text is about the influences of all those contexts. Nurturing
and protection of each child must be viewed in terms, not only of the family, but
also of the community—its neighborhoods, people, cultures, and institutions—both
local and national. Care-and-education institutions are part of this context.

As in earlier editions, the major theories around which this book is based in-
volve the community being the context in which child rearing takes place, no matter
what shape or form the families take. This book still focuses on families, but also on
the people and agencies outside the family. Some of those people who are using this
text are now, or will become, those professionals who work with families and their

New to this editioN
E-Text Format
Anyone used to the black and white paperback book will see a world of difference
when they take their first look at the new e-text format. There is no comparison.
Not that both the e-text and the paper book aren’t greatly updated with the latest
information and research, but the new format as an e-text has a number of engaging
new features. Note that the Pearson e-text format contains the following digital components: video
links, interactive section quizzes called “Check Your Understanding,” and end-of-chapter quizzes;
other e-text formats do not currently contain these interactive digital elements.

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vi Preface

Links to video in every chapter of the e-text augment the written word. As
students read from the screen, they know that with one click, video appears with
further information that comes in a variety of ways. Sometimes the informa-
tion comes from the mouths of the researchers whose work is mentioned in the
chapter. Certainly when students hear from academics who have contributed so
much to the field of child development and early childhood education, everything
becomes more personal and meaningful. Sometimes students see video clips that
demonstrate what the researchers talk about. We look into live classrooms to
see examples of various approaches of working with groups of children—or with
individuals—or with family members. Footage of actual teachers in classroom
scenes show examples of what is discussed in writing. Child development infor-
mation is portrayed by children themselves in families and in classrooms and
more. Community resources come alive as users talk about their experiences.
Sometimes the focus is on the environment, which offers inspiration for those
students who work in programs that lack rich, or even adequate, developmentally
appropriate settings. Often we see and hear people who represent the community
resources found in neighborhoods. We also have a chance to see examples of
children’s behaviors at different developmental levels.

The many videos, three to four in each chapter, bring information beyond the
words in the text and bring it in living color with sound and movement. Further, the
videos have reflection questions in the text to promote thought or classroom discus-
sion. What could be more meaningful for the generations that are media savvy and
know how to use it to their advantage!

A New Interactive Assessment Feature Called “Check Your
This new feature, which has been added at the end of each major section in each
chapter, is a multiple-choice assessment that aligns with, and asks questions about,
each Learning Outcome. The correct answer is noted and feedback is provided.
Students can then see what they have learned from reading each section. This makes
good sense and is quite effective. They can immediately determine what they for-
got or misunderstood, which allows them to go back and reread so they retain the

Interactive End-of-Chapter Quizzes
At the end of each chapter there are short-answer format quizzes, with feedback, to
assess student understanding—and reinforce learning—of chapter content.

Color Photos
Of course there are also still photographs as always—pictures that give visual em-
phasis to the concepts written about. In the e-text the photographs are in living
color—quite a contrast to black and white photos with “yesteryear” invisibly stamped
on them.

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Preface vii

other chaNges aNd additioNs
Reorganization of Each Chapter
Helping students grasp and retain what they read is important in any textbook. To
that end, every chapter has been more clearly organized with an average of three
major Learning Outcomes, with corresponding headings, followed by three to five
topic headings that relate to the subject(s) in each major heading. This organization
makes it easier for students to follow and remember the information.

Examples of New Topics and Expanded Previous Ones
◆ Gender roles. Discussion and research about young children developing gender

roles has been greatly updated and expanded.
◆ Mindset. Carol Dweck’s theory on how to help children move beyond a “fixed

mindset” that leads them to give up in the face of even a minor failure. Informa-
tion and examples are included of how to encourage an open mindset. Children
with an “open mindset” keep going even when failure occurs or seems inevitable.
An open mindset leads to exploration and growth.

◆ Grit. Angela Duckworthy and others explore how what they call “grit” helps
people stick to challenges, persist, and achieve success.

◆ Self-esteem. Not a new subject but an important one. The topic of self-esteem
has been reworked and expanded in this edition.

A Change in the Order of the Chapters
Chapter 2, “The Societal Influences on Families” (including racism), was too emo-
tionally laden to come so early in the term according to users. That chapter is now
Chapter 6, which works better after students have gotten to know each other.

Updated “Further Readings”
Twenty to thirty percent of the list at the end of each chapter under “Further Read-
ings” has been replaced with updated resources.

Highlighted Major Points
A new marginal feature of key brief points from the author are added for interest and

fouNdatioNal ideas suPPortiNg this Book
◆ Theory is presented in easy to understand language. The book rests on a

base of solid academics, constructivist theory, developmental research, anthro-
pological studies, and the personal experience of the author.

◆ The chapters place an emphasis on the ecological theory of human devel-
opment. Every chapter shows how professionals and families can partner to

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viii Preface

support healthy growth and development so that the child functions fully as a
competent community member.

◆ The book emphasizes cultural contexts. Valuing diversity, plus acknowledging
and understanding cultural contexts, has always been an important foundation
of this book. The new edition puts even more emphasis on perceiving and appre-
ciating cultural differences in order to embrace them. The attitude of acceptance
that develops challenges the students to expand their definitions of “develop-
mentally appropriate practice.”

◆ Reflection on personal experience is encouraged. Readers are asked to bring
their own ideas, experiences, and insights to their reading—in accordance with
Jean Piaget’s ideas about learners attaching new knowledge to existing knowl-
edge. In other words, readers are encouraged to reach into their own experiences
to make sense of new information in terms of what they already know. They are
encouraged to see how that same approach works equally well when relating
to families and conveying information to them. Whether a student, a teacher,
or a parent, respect for one’s own background, experiences, knowledge, ideas,
and insights is important. Because whatever we read always filters through our
own subjective experiences, this text acknowledges that fact and capitalizes on
it. Thus students can feel at home and find their own voices. They are asked to
do the same for the children and families they work with.

◆ Anecdotes and examples are provided throughout. Each chapter contains
stories and examples designed to take the subject out of the realm of theory and
into the real world of practice. Examples are designed to appeal to both tradi-
tional and non-traditional students, reflecting the changing demographics of the
United States.

◆ Advocacy is emphasized. The “Advocacy in Action” feature appeals to those
students who want to “do something!” about improving the lives of children,
families, the education systems, and society in general. This feature gives stu-
dents ideas about ways of being public and personal advocates.

iNstructor suPPlemeNts to this text
All ancillary resources for instructors are available for download by adopting profes-
sors via pearsonhighered.com in the Instructor Resource Center.

Instructor’s Resource Manual: This manual contains chapter overviews, activity
ideas for both in and out of class, and ways to integrate the digital content into
your course.

Online Test Bank: The test bank includes a variety of test items in various

Pearson TestGen: This test-generation software is available in various learning
management system formats. Download and use as is or create your own exams
with provided items and your own items. Test items included are the same items
in the Online Test Bank.

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Preface ix

Online PowerPoint Slides: PowerPoint slides highlight key concepts and strategies in each chapter. They
can be used to enhance lectures and discussions, or can be posted on your learning management system
as an additional study resource for your students.

Special thanks to the reviewers of this edition: Vernell D. Larkin, Hopkinsville Community College; Tonia Pa-
drick, Cape Fear Community College; Tasha Smith, Solano Community College; and Shaquam Urquhart Ed-
wards, College of Marin.

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Brief Contents

Chapter 1 The Child in Context of Family and
Community 2

Chapter 2 Supporting Families around Issues of
Attachment and Trust 22

Chapter 3 Supporting Families with Autonomy-Seeking
Youngsters 44

Chapter 4 Sharing Views of Initiative with Families 72

Chapter 5 Working with Families of School-Age
Children 98

Chapter 6 Societal Influences on Children and
Families 124

Chapter 7 Understanding Families’ Goals,
Values, and Culture 150

Chapter 8 Working with Families on
Guidance Issues 172

Chapter 9 Working with Families on Addressing
Feelings and Problem Solving 194

Chapter 10 Working with Families to Support
Self-Esteem 218

Chapter 11 Working with Families around Gender
Issues 242

Chapter 12 Stress and Success in Family Life 262

Chapter 13 Early Care and Education
Programs as Community Resources 284

Chapter 14 Supporting Families through Community
Resources and Networks 308

Chapter 15 Social Policy Issues 326

References 345

Index 369

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ChaptER 1 the Child in Context of Family
and Community 2
Looking at Context through Bioecological Theory 4

Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological Model 4
Family-Centered Approaches 6

Family-Centered Defined 7
The Benefits of Family-Centered Programs for Children 7
The Benefits of Family-Centered Education Programs for

Teachers 8
The Benefits of Family-Centered Programs for Families 9
Mutual Benefits 9

History of Family-Centered Care and Education 10
Challenges to Creating Partnerships with Families 13

Multiple Lenses through Which to Look at
Family-Centered Approaches 14

The Family Systems Theory Lens 14
The Whole Child Lens 16
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 17
Culture as a Lens 19

Summary 20
Quiz 20
For Discussion 20
Websites 20
Further Reading 21

ChaptER 2 Supporting Families around Issues
of attachment and trust 22
How Attachment and Trust are Related 23
The Development of Attachment and Trust 25

How Secondary Attachments Occur 28
Attachment Behaviors 29
Signs of Attachment in Infants 30

Obstacles to Attachment 30
Temperament and Attachment 31
Developmental Differences 32
Learning to Cope with Feelings of Loss 33

Varying Attachment Patterns 36
Bowlby and Ainsworth’s Research 36
Questions about Classic Attachment Research 37
Judging Attachment in a Cross-Cultural Situation 38

Effects of Child Care on Attachment 39

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xiv coNteNts

How Caregiver and Parent Roles Differ 40
Attachment in Full-Inclusion Programs 41

Summary 42
Quiz 42
For Discussion 42
Websites 42
Further Reading 43

ChaptER 3 Supporting Families with autonomy-Seeking
Youngsters 44
Signs of Developing Autonomy 46

Negativity 46
Exploration 47
Self-Help Skills 49
A Sense of Possession 53

Dealing with Issues of Power and Control 55
Set Up a Developmentally Appropriate Environment 55
Appreciate Play 57
Encourage Self-Help Skills 59
Give Choices 59
Provide Control 60
Set Limits 61

Coping with Loss and Separation 63
Taking Separation in Small Steps 63
Entering Child Care 64

Partnering with Families of Toddlers 66
Working with Families around Issues of Identity Development 66
Broadening Perspectives 68

Summary 69
Quiz 69
For Discussion 69
Websites 69
Further Reading 70

ChaptER 4 Sharing Views of Initiative with
Families 72
What Initiative Looks Like in a Four-Year-Old 73

Analyzing Initiative in a Four-Year-Old 74
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) 75
Developmental Conflicts 77
Imagination and Fantasy 78

The Value of Play for Young Children 79
How the Environment Contributes to a Sense of Initiative 81
Dimensions of Play Environments 82

How Adults Contribute to Children’s Initiative 83
Special Considerations for Children with Disabilities 85
The Shy Child 87
A Look at Aggression 88
Teaching Problem-solving Skills 91
Empowering the Preschool-Age Child 92

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coNteNts xv

Summary 95
Quiz 95
For Discussion 96
Websites 96
Further Reading 96

ChaptER 5 Working with Families of School-age
Children 98
School is Different from Preschool 99

A Family-Centered Approach to Kindergarten 100
The School-Age Child and Stages of Development 100
Differences Families Notice between School

and Preschool 103
Finding Out What Families Want for Their Children 105

Teaching Prosocial Skills and Morals 107
Looking at the Decision-Making Process as a Way of

Exploring Morals 108
The Power of Adult Attention 111

Paying Attention to the Behavior You Want to Continue 111
Using Affirmations 113
Children’s Response to Positive Adult Attention 114
Empty Praise versus Encouragement 118
Teaching Morals by Promoting Prosocial Development 120

Summary 122
Quiz 122
For Discussion 122
Websites 123
Further Reading 123

ChaptER 6 Societal Influences on Children
and Families 124
Socialization and the Family 126

The Issue of Bias 128
Schools as Socializing Agents 134

Getting into Kindergarten 135
Classroom Behavior 136
Responding to Diversity 138
Inequity and Schools 139

Other Agents of Socialization 139
The Peer Group as an Agent of Socialization 139
Functions of the Peer Group 140
Media and Technology as an Influence on

Socialization 141
Commercial Advertising 143
Violence 144

Summary 148
Quiz 148
For Discussion 148
Websites 149
Further Reading 149

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xvi coNteNts

ChaptER 7 Understanding Families’ Goals, Values, and
Culture 150
Cultural Differences in Goals and Values 153

How do the Goals of Independence and Interdependence
Differ? 154

Contrasting Cultural Patterns 154
Conflicting Goals and Values 156

What to Do when Conflicts Arise 158
Helping Children Understand and Value Cultural

Pluralism 166
Supporting Home Language 167

Language Loss in Immigrant Children 167
Understanding the Advantages of Bilingualism 168
Language Relationships 169

Summary 170
Quiz 170
For Discussion 170
Websites 171
Further Reading 171

ChaptER 8 Working with Families on Guidance
Issues 172
Discipline, Authority, and Cultural Differences 175

Changing the Word Discipline to Guidance 175
Inner Controls versus External Locus of Control 175
Teaching Self-regulation 177
Problems with Using Punishment to Teach 179
General Guidelines for Guiding Young Children 180

Discussing Preventative Measures with Parents 182
Guidance as Responding to Unacceptable Behavior 185
Summary 191
Quiz 191
For Discussion 191
Websites 192
Further Reading 192

ChaptER 9 Working with Families on addressing
Feelings and problem Solving 194
Feelings 195

What are Feelings? 199
All Feelings are Useful 199
Learning Feelings 200
Social Referencing 200
Cultural Scripts 201
The Importance of Accepting Feelings 203
Healthy Expressions of Feelings 204

Teaching Children to Cope with Feelings 206
Developing Self-Calming Skills 206
Coping by Playing Pretend 207

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coNteNts xvii

Coping with Simultaneous Feelings 208
Coping with Fear 208
Coping with Anger 209

Problem Solving 211
Using the RERUN Problem-Solving

Process with a Child 211
Problem Solving as a Cultural Issue 212
Problem Solving and Parenting Styles 213
A Deeper Look at the Four Parenting Styles 215

Summary 216
Quiz 216
For Discussion 216
Websites 216
Further Reading 217

ChaptER 10 Working with Families to Support
Self-Esteem 218
Exploring Self-Esteem as a Road to Success 219

Culture and Self-Esteem 220
Dimensions of Self-Esteem 222
The Role of Beliefs and Expectations in Self-Esteem 224
Where Does Self-Esteem Come From? 225

Promoting Self-Esteem 226
Give More Honest Feedback and Encouragement Than

Praise 227
Give Children Opportunities to Experience Success 227
Children Learn from Failure 230

Celebrating Differences: An Anti-bias Approach 231
Bias Can Hurt 233
Cultural Differences and Self-Esteem 234
Changing Negative Messages to Positive Ones 237

Summary 239
Quiz 239
For Discussion 239
Websites 240
Further Reading 240

ChaptER 11 Working with Families around Gender
Issues 242
Why it is Important to Think About Teaching Gender

Roles 243
Issues around Gender Roles 243
Some History Related to Genderized Clothing 245
Equity Issues and Gender Roles 246
The Women of Today 246

Gender Equity and Parenting 249
Toys and Gender Roles 250
The Power of Language 252
Using Modeling to Teach 253

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xviii coNteNts

Differential Socialization 254
Differential Treatment from Parents 256
Differential Treatment in Preschool 256
Differential Treatment in Elementary School 257
Guidelines for Parents and Educators 258

Summary 260
Quiz 260
For Discussion 261
Websites 261
Further Reading 261

ChaptER 12 Stress and Success in Family Life 262
Varied Images of Families 263

Ways in Which Families Can Vary 263
Families and Stress 264
Giving Legitimacy to Cultural Differences and Lifestyles 265

Successful Families 266
Traits of Successful Families 268
Images of Successful Families 269
Six Families 271

Stress as a Positive Force 278
What We Can Learn from Studies of Resilient Children 279
Helping All Children Become Resilient Children 280

Summary 282
Quiz 282
For Discussion 282
Websites 283
Further Reading 283

ChaptER 13 Early Care and Education programs as
Community Resources 284
Defining Types of Ece Programs 285

Exploring the Various Types of ECE Programs 285
Changing Times 288
Early Care and Education Programs as Child-Rearing

Environments 290
The State of Child Care in the United States Today 292

Affordability and Availability 292
Status and Salaries 293
Looking at Quality 294

Partnering with Families 295
Adult-Child Interactions in Child Care and Early Education

Settings 295
Including Everybody: Children with Special Needs 297
Having Concerns about a Child 299
Questions Concerning Continuity between Child Care and

Home 300
Roadblocks to Mutual Appreciation, Respect, and Support 304

Summary 306
Quiz 307

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coNteNts xix

For Discussion 306
Websites 307
Further Reading 307

ChaptER 14 Supporting Families through Community
Resources and Networks 308
Social Networks 309

Developing a Broad Base of Support 310
Forms Social Networks May Take 311
Community Institutions That Serve Families 312

Families Using Community Resources 314
Sara’s Family 314
Roberto’s Family 315
Junior’s Family 316
Michael’s Family 317
Courtney’s Family 318
The Jackson Family 319

Connections to the Community 320
A Summary of Community Resources 320
Finding Community Resources 321
Availability of Community Resources 322

Summary 323
Quiz 324
For Discussion 324
Websites 324
Further Reading 324

ChaptER 15 Social policy Issues 326
Who is Responsible for America’s Children? 327

Does Every Child Get an Equal Start? 327
Ready to Learn: A Goal for All of America’s Children 329
Private Citizens Making Changes 330

Benefitting Children and Families through Financial
Investments 331

Head Start 332
Child Care 332
Moving Toward Full-Inclusion Programs 336

Advocacy 337
Adequate Health Services and Nutrition for All 338
Taking a Preventive Approach 339
Violence and Its Effect on Children and Families 340

Summary 342
Quiz 343
For Discussion 343
Websites 343
Further Reading 343

References 345

Index 369

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Learning Outcomes
In this chapter you will learn to…

• Explain how to look at context through the lens of bioecological theory.
• Describe the implications of family-centered approaches, including the

benefits to children, teachers, and parents.
• Explain the history of family-centered care and education.
• Define multiple lenses through which to look at family-centered

approaches, including family systems theory, whole child perspective,
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, and culture as a lens.


The Child in
Context of Family
and Community






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The Child in Context of Family and Community 3

Why is the title of this book Child, Family, and Community? Here’s why. Many people go into the profession of teaching in general and into early care and
education specifically because they love children. They find they relate well to chil-
dren, and they enjoy being with them. When these individuals start taking classes,
they find that their studies focus on the development and education of children. The
course for which this book is designed also focuses on the child, but with a difference.
This book takes the position that children must be looked at in context—meaning
that each child must be viewed in the context of his or her family, and each family
must be viewed in the context of the community/communities/society to which it be-
longs. Taking this larger view of each child will help readers remember to always keep
the context in mind, no matter what aspect of child development and/or education
they study.

What are the various contexts that families come in? Culture is certainly one
overarching context which relates to ethnicity, and is affected by socioeconomic level,
family structure, sexual orientation and all the other variables that make this particu-
lar family what it is. Immigrant status, if any, is also a context. With immigrant num-
bers increasing, language and cultural diversity are becoming more obvious, though
ours has always been a diverse country. In one sense we are all immigrants except for
people who were on this continent first, those who can be considered indigenous.
Their descendants are still here. The rest of the population is made up of immigrants,
whether willing or unwilling (Ogbu, 1987). This list of influences on families repre-
sents just the tip of the iceberg. It’s a sample of all the ways in which families differ
from each other by their contexts. For more information about America’s children and
families, see the website for the Kids Count Data Center.

Another huge influence on children is the community. The child and family are
always placed in a community context. What community a family is in makes a big
difference. My husband’s family moved from Puebla, Mexico, to the San Francisco
Bay area in California …

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