due today ….. 7 hours ……. Due today in 7 hours no late work and no extended time…. this is about 2 page Do the following: Participate and comple

due today ….. 7 hours ……. Due today in 7 hours no late work and no extended time…. this is about 2 page

Do the following:

Participate and complete the Family Engagement Module (Links to an external site.) in Virtual Lab School

https://www.virtuallabschool.org/preschool/family-engagement/lesson-1?module=5491 (Links to an external site.)

2. READ: Chapter 5: Strengthening Specific Components of Social Competences in Katz. Take notes!

3. After completing the Family Engagement Module (Links to an external site.) in Virtual Lab School (above):

Write a 2-3 pages Virtual Lab School: Family Engagement Module that answers the following prompts:

Write a summary of what you discovered from the module-

Connect and Reflect: connect to the text and other course materials and reflect on how the information you have explored informs your current or future career with children and/or families.

How does the information you have explored in the Family Engagement Module relate to topics we have explored so far in CDECE 59 this semester? (provide reasoning and back up your connection with direct text quotes or other content provided during the semester)
What new ideas or information did you discover? (choose 2-4 new ideas and why you think they are important)
Reflect on what this information means to you- how do you imagine you will use this information in your present or future career and why? (don’t forget the why!)

The attachment is the book you can use to make reference to ISBN-13: 978-1-59558-074-0
ISBN-10: 1-59558-074-3

THE NEW PRESS

E D U CAT I O N $ 17. 9 5 U . S .

“PH E NOM E NAL . . . R EAD I NG IT FE E LS LI KE A B R EATH OF FR E S H AI R I N

AN I NCR EAS I NG LY POLLUTE D WOR LD. WITHOUT WOR KS LI KE TH I S,

THOS E OF US WHO AR E STR UGG LI NG TO CHANG E OU R SCHOOLS (AS

WE LL AS OU R SOCI ETY) WOU LD B E U NAB LE TO B R EATH E.”

—SAN FR ANCI SCO REV I EW OF BOOKS

“[OTH E R PEOPLE’S CH I LDRE N] PROVI D E S AN I M PORTANT, YET
TYPICALLY AVOI D E D, D I SCUSS ION OF HOW POWE R I M BALANCE S
I N TH E LARG E R U.S. SOCI ETY R EVE R B E RATE I N CLASS ROOM S.”

—HARVARD E DUCATIONAL REV I EW

“H E R E, FI NALLY, I S M U LTICU LTU RALI S M WITH A H U MAN FACE.”
—TEACH E R MAGAZ I N E

“A GOD S E N D . . . HON E ST AN D FAI R, YET VI S IONARY AN D FI R M.”
—QUARTE RLY BLACK REV I EW

When Lisa Delpit’s Other People’s
Children was first published, it was
heralded nationwide as a seminal
new analysis of race in the classroom.
It has gone on to become required
reading for teachers, parents, and
administrators alike. Featuring a new
introduction by Delpit as well as fram-
ing essays by Herbert Kohl, Charles
M. Payne, and Patricia Lesesne, this
revolutionary work develops ideas
about ways teachers can be better
“cultural transmitters.” Delpit sug-
gests that many academic problems
attributed to children of color are
actually the result of miscommunica-
tion, as teachers and “other people’s
children” struggle with the imbalance

of power and the dynamics of inequal-
ity plaguing our society.

A new classic among educators,

Other People’s Children is a must-read

for teachers, parents, and administra-

tors striving to eradicate the prejudice

and stereotypes that breed ineffective

education.

L I S A D E L P I T is an Eminent Scholar

and Executive Director of the Center

for Urban Education and Innovation

at Florida International University in

Miami, where she lives. Her work is

dedicated to providing excellent edu-

cation for marginalized communities

in the United States and abroad.

www.thenewpress.com

Cover photograph by istock/Stewart Cauley
Cover design by Pollen, New YorkTHE NEW PRESS

CU LTU RAL CON FLICT I N TH E CLASS ROOM

L I S A D E L P I T

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O N E O F T E A C H E R M A G A Z I N E ’ S “ G R E AT B O O K S ”

W I T H A N E W I N T R O D U C T I O N B Y T H E A U T H O R

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Other People’s Children

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Other People’s
Children

Cultural Conflict in the Classroom

d

Lisa Delpit

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© 1 9 9 5 , 2 0 0 6 b y l i s a d e l p i t
i n d i v i d u a l e s s ay s © 2 0 0 6 b y e a c h a u t h o r

a l l r i g h t s r e s e r v e d .
n o pa r t o f t h i s b o o k m ay b e r e p r o d u c e d , i n a n y f o r m ,

w i t h o u t w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n f r o m t h e p u b l i s h e r .

r e q u e s t s f o r p e r m i s s i o n t o r e p r o d u c e s e l e c t i o n s f r o m t h i s b o o k
s h o u l d b e m a i l e d t o : p e r m i s s i o n s d e pa r t m e n t, t h e n e w p r e s s ,

3 8 g r e e n e s t r e e t, n e w y o r k , n y 1 0 0 1 3 .

t h i s e d i t i o n p u b l i s h e d i n t h e u n i t e d s tat e s b y t h e n e w p r e s s ,
n e w y o r k , 2 0 0 6

d i s t r i b u t e d b y w. w. n o r t o n & c o m pa n y, i n c . , n e w y o r k

“Skills and Other Dilemmas of a Progressive Black Educator” first appeared in
Harvard Educational Review 56, no. 4: 379–85. Copyright © 1986 by the President
and Fellows of Harvard College. All rights reserved.

“The Silenced Dialogue: Power and Pedagogy in Educating Other People’s Chil-
dren” first appeared in Harvard Educational Review 58, no. 3: 280–98. Copyright ©
1988 by President and Fellows of Harvard College. All rights reserved.

“Language Diversity and Learning” first appeared in Perspectives on Talk and Learn-
ing, ed. Susan Hynds and Donald L. Rubin. Copyright © 1990 by the National
Council of Teachers of English. Reprinted with permission.

“The Politics of Teaching Literate Discourse” first appeared in Freedom’s Plow, ed.
Theresa Perry and James Fraser. Copyright © 1993 by Routledge. Reprinted with
permission.

l i b r a r y o f c o n g r e s s c ata l o g i n g – i n – p u b l i c at i o n d ata ava i l a b l e .
i s b n – 1 3 : 9 7 8 – 1 – 5 9 5 5 8 – 0 7 4 – 0 ( p b k . )
i s b n – 1 0 : 1 – 5 9 5 5 8 – 0 7 4 – 3 ( p b k . )

t h e n e w p r e s s w a s e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1 9 9 0 a s a n o t – f o r – p r o f i t a l t e r n a –
t i v e t o t h e l a r g e , c o m m e r c i a l p u b l i s h i n g h o u s e s c u r r e n t l y d o m i n a t –
i n g t h e b o o k p u b l i s h i n g i n d u s t r y . t h e n e w p r e s s o p e r a t e s i n t h e
p u b l i c i n t e r e s t r a t h e r t h a n f o r p r i v a t e g a i n , a n d i s c o m m i t t e d t o
p u b l i s h i n g , i n i n n o v a t i v e w a y s , w o r k s o f e d u c a t i o n a l , c u l t u r a l , a n d
c o m m u n i t y v a l u e t h a t a r e o f t e n d e e m e d i n s u f f i c i e n t l y p r o f i t a b l e .

w w w . t h e n e w p r e s s . c o m

b o o k d e s i g n b y c h a r l e s n i x
c o m p o s i t i o n b y d i x !

t h i s b o o k wa s s e t i n g a r a m o n d # 3

p r i n t e d i n c a n a d a

9 7 5 3 1 2 4 6 8 10

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For Maya, Colin and Qasim –

While you are with us,
you belong not to us,

For your souls dwell in a
place of tomorrow

Which we cannot visit,
not even in our dreams.

(Adapted from Kahlil Gibran’s The Prophet)

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Contents

Editor’s Note ix
Acknowledgments xi
Introduction to the 2005 Edition xiii
Introduction xxi

P a r t 1 : C o n t r o v e r s i e s R e v i s i t e d

Skills and Other Dilemmas of a Progressive
Black Educator 11

The Silenced Dialogue 21
Language Diversity and Learning 48

P a r t 2 : L e s s o n s f r o m H o m e a n d A b r o a d

The Vilis Tokples Schools of Papua New Guinea 77
“Hello, Grandfather” 91
Teachers’ Voices 105

P a r t 3 : L o o k i n g t o t h e F u t u r e

Cross-cultural Confusions in Teacher Assessment 135
The Politics of Teaching Literate Discourse 152
Education in a Multicultural Society 167

Reflections on Other People’s Children herbert kohl 185
Teaching the Hard of Head charles m. payne 188
Other People’s Children: The Lasting Impact

patricia lesesne 193

Notes 201
Index 215

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Editor’s Note

O
ther People’s Children was the first book I edited at The
New Press – well, the first book I edited anywhere, since
I was a classroom teacher when I came to The New

Press – and it was the book that confirmed for me that books,
like good teachers, can indeed change hearts and minds and
practice. My friend Diane Wachtell offered me the chance to
be a summer education fellow at The New Press, then just a
year old. A box filled with Lisa’s articles and papers arrived.
My job was to turn the papers into a book. I started reading.

Teachers talk all the time about the “Aha” moment, when
the light goes on and the student gets it. I was thirty when,
thanks to Lisa, I got it. I had been teaching for seven years at
that point, and I know now that I had not served many of the
children in my classrooms well. I was a well-intentioned
white teacher, taught by other well-intentioned white teach-
ers, and I did not know enough about how to navigate cultural
differences in the classroom – racial, religious, socioeconomic.
I read the work that became Other People’s Children and, armed
with both theory and practice in the form of Lisa’s eloquent,
anecdote-packed prose, I began to teach differently – because
she taught me to think differently.

Now, as I travel across the country and stand in The New
Press’s booth at education conferences, I hear the same thing
over and over when people see Other People’s Children: “This
book changed my life!” And I know they mean it, because I
know how it changed mine. It’s an honor to present this edi-
tion of Other People’s Children with a new introduction from

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Lisa and moving pieces by her colleagues Herbert Kohl, Patri-
cia Lesesne, and Charles Payne. It’s been an honor to know
Lisa over the years, and I know I am not alone in wanting to
thank her for sharing her gifts and insights and friendship
with so many.

Ellen Gordon Reeves
Education Editor

The New Press

x Editor’s Note

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Acknowledgments

W
riting a first book can never be easy, but when the
writing is coupled with working full time and
being the single mother of a five-year-old, it could

be impossible without the support and encouragement of
friends, family members, and colleagues. I owe thanks to
many.

I would never have discovered that I had something worth
saying if not for Badi Foster, Ken Haskins, Chet Pierce, and
Courtney Cazden – four very special people who were my pro-
fessors at Harvard’s Graduate School of Education. They
taught not only with their lectures but with their lives.

This volume would not exist were it not for two dear
friends. Herb Kohl pushed and prodded me to write – even
getting editors to call me when I was less than enthusiastic
about the prospect. Alma Roberts was there throughout the
book’s gestation and birth with words of encouragement and
numerous offers for quality childcare.

My former boss, Dr. Robert Hill, and the rest of the staff at
Morgan State University’s Institute for Urban Research
always made work a pleasure. From the time I returned to my
job as new mother and found a playpen in my office until the
day I sadly said good-bye, they supported all of my work
efforts. I must particularly thank my research assistant,
Sharon Futrell. Sharon not only kept my life in order but
typed copy after copy of the manuscript without a sign of
complaint.

My wonderful family has been and continues to be an

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unending source of inspiration, knowledge, and support.
They instilled in me the ethic of concern for others and taught
me to live with care upon this earth. In order to ensure that I
would have the time and space to write without distraction,
my sister and her husband, Billie and Clarence “Skee” Cun-
ningham, generously allowed me the use of their isolated
beach house while my mother, Mrs. Edmae Butler, loved and
nurtured my rambunctious daughter for three weeks. (And
thanks, Billie and Skee, for bringing Maya to visit me when
neither of us could go another day without a mother-daughter
hug.) Kevin, Helena, Joe, Precious, Deedy, Desi – all of you
helped make this book possible.

Special love and thanks must go to my Maya, who keeps me
working to create a better future. She gave up big chunks of
mommy-time so that I could write. (Yes, sweetie, when you
grow up you can help me write another book.)

I owe much to my editors at the New Press. Diane Wachtell
made me believe I could do this. She and Ellen Reeves provided
the utmost in quality, patient editorial assistance, while at the
same time supplying an abundance of warmth and friendship.
They have enriched my life, professionally and personally. I am
fortunate to have gotten to know them.

I am indebted to the MacArthur Foundation for their gen-
erous support during my tenure as a MacArthur Fellow.
Without that support it would have been very difficult to find
the time and space to write.

Finally, I thank the children, parents, and teachers who
have shared so much of their lives with me. Individuals in the
far corners of the planet have taught critical lessons about
“other people’s children” and patiently guided my learning. I
owe them all a debt I can never repay.

xii Acknowledgments

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Introduction to the 2005 Edition
Lisa Delpit

Alot has happened since I first sat down to write theoriginal introduction to Other People’s Children, both inmy life and in the life of the country. I have gone from
being the anxious yet hopeful mother of a five-year-old just
entering the public school system to the exhausted and dis-
couraged mother of a sixteen-year-old who has struggled
through nine schools from first to eleventh grade in our
attempt to find a school that makes sense.

Since the publication of Other People’s Children, the country’s
educational system has become caught in the vise of the No
Child Left Behind Act, which mandates more standardized
testing of children than the country has ever seen, with more
and more urban school districts adopting “teacher-proof ” cur-
ricula to address low test scores, along with school consultants
whose sole purpose is to police teachers’ adherence to scripted
lessons, mandated classroom management strategies, and
strict instructional timelines that ignore the natural rhythms
of teaching and learning.

But perhaps one of the changes that carries the most weight
for all of us is the realization that we are not the country we
once believed ourselves to be. The great putrid underbelly of
racism and classism in our nation has been exposed through
the tragedy of New Orleans. The horror of nature’s attack on a
major U.S. city has been overshadowed by the distorted atti-
tudes toward those who are darker and poorer. Tens of thou-

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sands of American citizens were abandoned, suffering a dearth
of food, water, sanitation, and basic medical attention, and, in
too many instances, left to die from neglect.

All of these changes affect my thinking as I pen this intro-
duction to Other People’s Children over a decade after its first
publication. Overall, I write now with a sense that, like the
unicorn who frolicked in the rain instead of getting on the
ark, we have missed a very important boat. We have given up
the rich meaningful education of our children in favor of nar-
row, decontextualized, meaningless procedures that leave
unopened hearts, unformed character, and unchallenged
minds.

I recently invited a group of educators to ponder a fictional
scene:

The year is 2092. The hundred-year-old man lies on his death bed,
contemplating his long life. His children, grandchildren, and great-
grandchildren surround him. He has lived a good life – there have
been good times and bad times; he has accomplished much that he
is proud of and had many experiences that he’d prefer to forget. One
of his favorite grandsons looks into his eyes and asks, “Grandpa, is
there anything you regret in your life?” The old man closes his eyes.
Just when his family thinks he has drifted off to sleep, he opens
them again and says with an expression of deep, wistful longing,
“Son, I just really wish with all my heart that I could have scored
higher on the state-mandated achievement tests.”

The absurdity of this scene is clear. And yet we in education
have allowed politicians to push us to act as if the most impor-
tant goal of our work is to raise test scores. Never mind the
development of the human beings in our charge – the
integrity, the artistic expressiveness, the ingenuity, the persis-
tence, or the kindness of those who will inherit the earth – the
conversation in education has been reduced to a conversation
about one number.

It has been, in part, this type of “education” that has driven
my family in the frustrating search for a school that would
consider my daughter’s entire being and not merely her abil-
ity or inability to produce a test score. Although my child suf-

xiv Introduction to the 2005 Edition

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fered from the reductionism of test-mania, children in low-
income communities suffer even more greatly.

When we strip away a focus on developing the humanity of
our children, we are left with programmed, mechanistic
strategies designed to achieve the programmed, mechanistic
goal of raising test scores. Nowhere is the result more glaring
than in urban classrooms serving low-income children of
color, where low test scores meet programmed, scripted teach-
ing. The reductionism spawned has created settings in which
teachers and students are treated as nonthinking objects to be
manipulated and “managed.”

Of course, as I submitted in Other People’s Children, it is still
imperative that we actually teach children the academic skills
they need to be successful participants in society, but I now
realize, with ever-increasing clarity, that we must do that and
much more. I will be forever grateful for locating a school for
my child that has embraced the idea of “much more” and
institutionalized it, not only in its two boarding schools in
New England but in public charter schools serving predomi-
nantly African American children in New Haven, Connecti-
cut; Washington, D.C.; Oakland, California; and, soon,
Harlem, New York. That school is the Hyde School, which
takes as its mission the education of the hearts, minds, and
souls of its students. Rather than enforce some narrow, lop-
sided version of education, founder Joe Gauld says the Hyde
School’s message to students is:

– that they have an important purpose on this earth and the unique
potential to fulfill it.

– that their true worth is measured not by their social status, intel-
lect, or talents, but by the strength of their character.

– that we admire their attitude and effort, and care less about their
actual achievements, because these will come with time if they
develop character traits like those emblazoned on the Hyde
School shield: Courage, Integrity, Concern, Curiosity, and Lead-
ership.1

The Hyde Schools do not take these ideas lightly. Every
student, every teacher, and every parent pursues a rigorous

Introduction to the 2005 Edition xv

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curriculum of character development, and students consis-
tently hold each other to their best efforts – intellectually,
physically, spiritually, emotionally, and socially.2 Hyde’s
assumption that character development leads to achievement
is borne out by the overall record of its graduates. Not only do
more than 95 percent of the boarding school’s graduates go on
to four-year colleges, but 100 percent of the 2005 seniors at
the public school, Hyde D.C., were accepted into four-year
colleges.

I am more concerned now with the development of the
character of our children than I was when I originally wrote
Other People’s Children. This is in part because, as my own child
advanced through the grades, I have become more involved
with older students. Engaging almost any middle- or high-
schooler, regardless of ethnicity or social class, in a real conver-
sation about schools will inevitably leave one with a sense of
the vacuousness of much schooling. Seldom are students en-
couraged to tackle the deep moral issues they must tussle with
in this complex time, nor are they led to think about them-
selves as agents responsible for a larger world. I cannot help
but believe that the past decade’s phenomenon of middle-class
white students turning into assassins is connected to the
emptiness of what many of our students call schooling. There
continue to be dedicated, thoughtful, committed teachers in
our schools, but the narrow focus of No Child Left Behind has
driven them to despair as their administrators mandate more
and more meaningless, mechanistic goals.

Were we focused on our children as inheritors of the future,
perhaps we could be more deliberate in teaching them the
traits they need to become protectors of the earth and all of its
inhabitants. Perhaps then we would have seen a different out-
come in New Orleans.

In the original introduction to Other People’s Children, I
spoke of the deadly fog created when the cold mist of bias and
ignorance met the warm reality of children of color. I spoke of
how that fog fed the monstrous stereotypes held by so many
about young black males. If there existed a metaphoric fog in
1995, then the hurricane known as Katrina is both an apt

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metaphor and a portrayal of the literal truth of the level of
deadly bias that exists in 2005.

Like many Americans, I sat in my comfortable home, horri-
fied but unable to turn away as the Katrina tragedy unfolded.
Even while on-location news reporters pleaded with the pow-
ers that be to rescue the thousands of poor black people left in
deplorable conditions, I watched one eight-second clip of a
few black residents taking non-survival items replayed over
and over again, day and night, with the unstated implication
that those left behind were not worthy of rescue. A picture
described two white victims as “finding” bread and soda at a
local grocery store, while a picture of black survivors, also car-
rying bread, was labeled as “looting.”

Newscaster after newscaster described black people so out
of control that police were needed to restrain them rather than
to rescue them. “Young men with guns” were said to be ter-
rorizing police and shooting at the helicopters sent to rescue
them.

It has only been since the real stories of the survivors have
surfaced in a few venues that the mainstream reports can be
shown to be the distorted, racially biased interpretations that
they were. Yes, eyewitnesses reported, there were those who
shot at helicopters, but they were firing in frustration as heli-
copters passed over them, bound for the mostly white suburbs
of Kenner and Metarie (home of KKK notable David Duke) to
rescue people there rather than saving those in the severely
flooded areas of New Orleans. They said the shots were fired
because black people were being ignored again.

Denise Moore, trapped in the Morial Convention Center,
says that there were young men with guns, but they were the
only help the people there could count on. These young men
got food and water for the old people and the babies because
no one had eaten in days. Police and National Guardsmen
dropped people off but no one was picked up, and no provi-
sions were supplied. When the buses finally came, Ms. Moore
declared, it was the “young men with guns” who organized
the crowd: old people in front, women and children next, and
men last. When she got to safety, Ms. Moore says she couldn’t

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believe how these young men were portrayed on television.
She kept repeating to her interviewer, “Make sure you tell
everybody that they left us there to die. . . . Those young men
with guns were protecting us. If it weren’t for them, we
wouldn’t have had the little food and water they had found.” 3

A young black man able to start a New Orleans Parish
school bus picked up forty to fifty starving and dehydrated
people and drove eight hours to the Houston Astrodome. The
young man was called a thief. The bus was called a “renegade
bus,” and the hurricane survivors on the bus were denied
access to the Astrodome because they did not come directly
from the New Orleans Superdome on a designated bus and
they had arrived sooner than the chartered buses. They were
eventually taken in and given water and food, but some report
that the seventeen-year-old driver was arrested after returning
to New Orleans to rescue others.

While all of the patients in the mostly white Tulane Hospi-
tal were expediently evacuated, days passed before the mostly
black and poor patients of Charity Hospital were slowly evac-
uated, and then only after desperate phone calls from over-
whelmed, exhausted, and dehydrated nurses played over the
airwaves.

Poor people and people of color are clearly in trouble in this
country. And this means that we as a country are in trouble.
Our “trouble” cannot be resolved by the creation and adminis-
tration of standardized tests. Our “trouble” cannot be resolved
by “teacher-proof” curricula. The troubles of our country –
indeed, the troubles of our world – can be addressed only if we
help ourselves and our children touch the deep humanity of
our collective spirit and regain the deep respect for the earth
that spawned us. Perhaps we can learn from traditional
African education, where the role of teachers is to appeal to
the intellect, the humanity, and the spirituality of their stu-
dents.4

The year 2005 brings me both hope and despair. I despair
when I see good teachers either leaving the profession or clos-
ing down their creativity in the face of school policies that kill
real learning rather than promote it. And I am discouraged by

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the treatment of people of color and poor people in this coun-
try, which Katrina epitomized.

On the other hand, I am filled with hope when I see schools
like Hyde and others around the country that treat children
with the belief that we are working with precious resources
when we seek to educate young people, when I receive hun-
dreds of letters from teachers of all colors who are frustrated
but deeply committed to doing the best for children, when I
see young people who devote time and energy to making the
world a better place. It makes my heart smile when I meet col-
lege and high school students who have joined the Young
People’s Project, in which young college students devote
great chunks of their free time to becoming “Community
Math Literacy Workers” so they can teach younger children to
be successful in mathematics. Or when I find out about young
people who are volunteering time to help New Orleans resi-
dents repair their houses.

When I consider what I would like to see in the education
of our children, I continue to want all of our children to
achieve academic success. But I also know that there must be
more. I am always moved by a letter that Haim Ginott
included in Teacher and Child, given by a principal to all of his
teachers on the first day of the new school year:

Dear Teacher:
I am the survivor of a concentration camp. My eyes saw what no person
should witness:

Gas chambers built by learned engineers.
Children poisoned by educated physicians.
Infants killed by trained nurses.
Women and babies shot and burned by high school and college graduates.

So I am suspicious of education. My request is: Help your students become
human. Your efforts must never produce learned monsters, skilled psy-
chopaths, educated Eichmanns. Reading, writing and arithmetic are impor-
tant only if they were to make our children more humane.5

Introduction to the 2005 Edition xix

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Introduction

S c e n e I

Carolyn is a young Irish-American kindergarten teacherwho has been teaching for five years. The school atwhich she has taught has been a predominantly white,
middle-class school in a quiet neighborhood in New England.
However, because of recent redistricting, the school popula-
tion now includes children from a housing project not far
away. These children are almost exclusively poor and black.
Thus, Carolyn and the other teachers in the school are newly
faced with a population of children with whom they are com-
pletely unfamiliar.

I am working on a research project with Carolyn. She has
asked me to observe a little boy named Anthony, a five-year-
old black child from “the projects,” whom she has defined as a
child with behavioral, learning, and language problems. She
wants to use the results of my observations to “get him help.”

In my observations of Anthony in the classroom, I have
noticed that he gets almost no positive feedback during the
course of a day, and instead receives a tremendous number of
negative comments. I have taken Anthony out into the hall-
way several times to talk and play privately so as to get a bet-
ter assessment of his actual abilities. The following dialogue is
taken from a transcript of my conference with Carolyn about
my observations. I am attempting to point out some of
Anthony’s positive points to Carolyn:

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L: Anthony told me that he liked school and that his favorite
thing in his class was group time.

C: That’s amazing, since he can’t sit still in it. He just says
anything sometimes. In the morning he’s OK; after nap
he’s impossible.

* * *

L: He’s really talking more, it seems!
C: He’s probably never allowed to talk at home. He needs

communicative experience. I was thinking of referring him
to a speech therapist. He probably never even …

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