Doing Ethics Write a short, objective summary of 250-500 words which summarizes the main ideas being put forward by the author in each selection. “What is

Doing Ethics Write a short, objective summary of 250-500 words which summarizes the main ideas being put forward by the author in each selection.

“What is the Socrative Method?” by Christopher Phillips (starting on page 14)

“Utilitarianism” by John Stuart Mill (starting on page 111)

“The Need for More than Justice” by Annette C. Baier (starting on page 188)

“A Defense of Abortion” by Judith Jarvis Thomson (starting on page 237)

“Active and Passive Euthanasia” by James Rachels (starting on page 300)

“The Morality of Migration” by Seyla Benhabib (starting on page 766)

“Famine, Affluence, and Morality” by Peter Singer (starting on page 829) D O I N G
E T H I C S

‘’
Moral Reasoning and Contemporary Issues

F I F T H E D I T I O N

Lewis Vaughn

n
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iii

C O N T E N T S

‘’
P r e f a c e x i x

P A R T 1 : F U N D A M E N T A L S

C H A P T E R 1 Ethics and the Examined Life 3

The Ethical Landscape 5

The Elements of Ethics 6

The Preeminence of Reason 6

Quick Review 7

The Universal Perspective 7

The Principle of Impartiality 7

The Dominance of Moral Norms 8

Religion and Morality 8

Believers Need Moral Reasoning 9

When Conflicts Arise, Ethics Steps In 9

Moral Philosophy Enables Productive Discourse 9

Critical Thought—Ethics, Religion,
And Tough Moral Issues 1 0

SUMMARY 1 1

KEY TERMS 1 2

REVIEW QUESTIONS 1 2

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1 2

ETHICAL DILEMMAS 1 3

FURTHER READING 1 3

R E A D I N G S

What Is the Socratic Method? by Christopher Phillips 1 4

The Euthyphro by Plato 1 6

C H A P T E R 2 Subjectivism, Relativism, and Emotivism 2 0

Subjective Relativism 2 1

Quick Review 2 1

Judge Not? 2 2

Cultural Relativism 2 3

Critical Thought—“Female Circumcision”
And Cultural Relativism 2 4

Emotivism 2 8

SUMMARY 3 0

KEY TERMS 3 1

REVIEW QUESTIONS 3 1

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 3 1

ETHICAL DILEMMAS 3 2

FURTHER READING 3 2

R E A D I N G S

Anthropology and the Abnormal by Ruth Benedict 3 3

Trying Out One’s New Sword by Mary Midgley 3 5

P A R T 2 : M O R A L R E A S O N I N G

C H A P T E R 3 Evaluating Moral Arguments 4 1

Claims and Arguments 4 1

Arguments Good and Bad 4 3

Critical Thought—The Moralit y
Of Critical Thinking 4 4

Implied Premises 4 7

Quick Review 4 7

Deconstructing Arguments 48

Moral Statements and Arguments 5 1

Testing Moral Premises 5 4

Assessing Nonmoral Premises 5 5

Quick Review 5 5

Á CONTENTSiv

Avoiding Bad Arguments 5 6

Begging the Question 5 6

Equivocation 5 7

Appeal to Authority 5 7

Appeal To Emotion 5 7

Slippery Slope 5 8

Faulty Analogy 5 8

Appeal to Ignorance 5 8

Straw Man 5 9

Appeal to the Person 5 9

Hasty Generalization 5 9

Quick Review 6 0

Writing and Speaking about Moral Issues 6 0

SUMMARY 6 2

KEY TERMS 6 2

REVIEW QUESTIONS 6 3

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 6 3

ARGUMENT EXERCISES 6 3

FURTHER READING 6 4

C H A P T E R 4 The Power of Moral Theories 6 5

Theories of Right and Wrong 6 5

Moral Theories Versus Moral Codes 6 6

Major Theories 6 7

Consequentialist Theories 6 7

Nonconsequentialist Theories 6 8

Quick Review 6 9

Evaluating Theories 7 0

Criterion 1: Consistency with Considered Moral Judgments 7 1

Considered Moral Judgment s 7 2

Criterion 2: Consistency with Our Moral Experiences 7 2

Critical Thought—A 100 Percent All-Natural Theory 7 3

Criterion 3: Usefulness in Moral Problem Solving 7 3

CONTENTS Á v

Quick Review 7 4

Devising a Coherent Moral Theory 7 4

Moral Common Sense 7 4

Building a Moral Theory 7 5

Prima Facie Principles 7 6

Three Rules 7 7

Self-Evidence 8 0

SUMMARY 8 1

KEY TERMS 8 1

REVIEW QUESTIONS 8 1

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 8 2

ETHICAL DILEMMAS 8 2

FURTHER READING 8 2

P A R T 3 : T H E O R I E S O F M O R A L I T Y

C H A P T E R 5 Consequentialist Theories: Maximize the Good 8 5

Ethical Egoism 8 5

Applying the Theory 8 6

Evaluating the Theory 8 7

Can Ethical Egoism Be Advocated? 8 9

Quick Review 9 1

Utilitarianism 9 1

Applying the Theory 9 4

Peter Singer, Utilitarian 9 5

Quick Review 9 6

Evaluating the Theory 9 6

Learning from Utilitarianism 1 0 0

Social Contract Theory 1 0 0

Critical Thought—Cross-Species Transplant s: What Would A
Utilitarian Do? 1 0 1

Hobbes’s Theory 1 0 1

Evaluating the Theory 1 0 2

Á CONTENTSvi

CONTENTS Á  vii

SUMMARY 1 0 4

KEY TERMS 1 0 5

REVIEW QUESTIONS 1 0 5

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1 0 5

ETHICAL DILEMMAS 1 0 6

FURTHER READING 1 0 6

R E A D I N G S

Egoism and Altruism by Louis P. Pojman 1 0 7

Utilitarianism by John Stuart Mill 1 1 1

A Theory of Justice by John Rawls 1 1 5

The Entitlement Theory of Justice by Robert Nozick 1 2 2

C H A P T E R 6 Nonconsequentialist Theories: Do Your Duty 1 3 2

Kant’s Ethics 1 3 2

Critical Thought—Sizing Up The Golden Rule 1 3 4

Applying the Theory 1 3 5

Evaluating the Theory 1 3 6

Kant, Respect, And Personal Right s 1 3 7

Learning from Kant’s Theory 1 3 8

Natural Law Theory 1 3 9

Applying the Theory 1 4 1

Quick Review 1 4 1

Critical Thought—Double Effect
And The “Trolley Problem” 1 4 2

Evaluating the Theory 1 4 2

Learning from Natural Law 1 4 3

SUMMARY 1 4 4

KEY TERMS 1 4 4

REVIEW QUESTIONS 1 4 4

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1 4 5

ETHICAL DILEMMAS 1 4 5

FURTHER READING 1 4 6

R E A D I N G S

Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals
by Immanuel Kant 1 4 6

Summa Theologica by St. Thomas Aquinas 1 5 5

Morality as a System of Hypothetical Imperatives by Philippa Foot 1 6 5

C H A P T E R 7 Virtue Ethics: Be a Good Person 1 7 2

The Ethics of Virtue 1 7 2

Critical Thought—Learning Virtues
In The Classroom 1 7 3

Virtue in Action 1 7 4

Evaluating Virtue Ethics 1 7 4

Critical Thought—Warrior Virtues And Moral
Disagreement s 1 7 6

Quick Review 1 7 7

Learning from Virtue Ethics 1 7 7

SUMMARY 1 7 7

KEY TERMS 1 7 8

REVIEW QUESTIONS 1 7 8

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1 7 8

ETHICAL DILEMMAS 1 7 8

FURTHER READING 1 7 9

R E A D I N G S

Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 1 7 9

The Need for More Than Justice by Annette C. Baier 1 8 8

Á CONTENTSviii

C H A P T E R 8 Feminist Ethics and the Ethics of Care 1 9 6

Feminist Ethics 1 9 7

Critical Thought—Feminist Ethics In History 1 9 7

The Ethics of Care 1 9 8

Quick Review 1 9 9

SUMMARY 1 9 9

KEY TERMS 1 9 9

REVIEW QUESTIONS 1 9 9

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 2 0 0

ETHICAL DILEMMAS 2 0 0

FURTHER READING 2 0 0

R E A D I N G S

Feminist Ethics by Alison M. Jaggar 2 0 1

The Ethics of Care as Moral Theory by Virginia Held 2 0 9

P A R T 4 : E T H I C A L I S S U E S

C H A P T E R 9 Abortion 2 2 1

Issue File: Background 2 2 1

Abortion In The United States: Fact s And Figures 2 2 3

Moral Theories 2 2 4

Majorit y Opinion In Ro e V. Wa d e 2 2 5

Abortion And The Scriptures 2 2 6

Moral Arguments 2 2 7

Quick Review 2 2 7

State Abortion Laws 2 2 9

Critical Thought—Fact-Checking Abortion Claims 2 3 1

CONTENTS Á ix

SUMMARY 2 3 3

KEY TERMS 2 3 4

REVIEW QUESTIONS 2 3 4

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 2 3 4

FURTHER READING 2 3 5

ETHICAL DILEMMAS 2 3 5

R E A D I N G S

A Defense of Abortion by Judith Jarvis Thomson 2 3 7

On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion by Mary Anne Warren 2 4 7

Why Abortion Is Immoral by Don Marquis 2 5 6

Virtue Theory and Abortion by Rosalind Hursthouse 2 6 8

Abortion Through a Feminist Ethics Lens by Susan Sherwin 2 7 4

C H A P T E R 1 0 Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide 2 8 5

The Death Of K aren Ann Quinlan 2 8 6

Issue File: Background 2 8 6

Landmark Court Rulings 2 8 8

Quick Review 2 8 9

Moral Theories 2 8 9

Critical Thought—Dr. Kevorkian
And Physician-Assisted Suicide 2 9 1

Moral Arguments 2 9 1

Public Opinion And Euthanasia 2 9 3

SUMMARY 2 9 5

KEY TERMS 2 9 6

REVIEW QUESTIONS 2 9 6

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 2 9 6

FURTHER READING 2 9 6

ETHICAL DILEMMAS 2 9 7

Á CONTENTSx

R E A D I N G S

Active and Passive Euthanasia by James Rachels 3 0 0

The Wrongfulness of Euthanasia by J. Gay-Williams 3 0 4

Voluntary Active Euthanasia by Dan W. Brock 3 0 7

Euthanasia by Philippa Foot 3 1 5

Killing and Allowing to Die by Daniel Callahan 3 2 9

Euthanasia for Disabled People? by Liz Carr 3 3 2

C H A P T E R 1 1 Delivering Health Care 3 3 4

Issue File: Background 3 3 4

Health Care By Country 3 3 6

Critical Thought—Comparing Health Care Systems 3 3 7

Moral Theories 3 3 8

Moral Arguments 3 3 9

Quick Review 3 4 0

SUMMARY 3 4 0

KEY TERMS 3 4 1

REVIEW QUESTIONS 3 4 1

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 3 4 1

FURTHER READING 3 4 2

ETHICAL DILEMMAS 3 4 2

R E A D I N G S

Autonomy, Equality and a Just Health Care System by Kai Nielsen 3 4 4

The Right to a Decent Minimum of Health Care by Allen E. Buchanan 3 5 0

Is There a Right to Health Care and, If So, What Does It Encompass?
by Norman Daniels 3 6 3

CONTENTS Á xi

C H A P T E R 1 2 Animal Welfare 3 7 1

Issue File: Background 3 7 2

Critical Thought—Using Animals To Test Consumer
Product s 3 7 4

Moral Theories 3 7 5

Critical Thought—Should We Experiment
On Orphaned Babies? 3 7 7

Quick Review 3 7 8

Moral Arguments 3 7 8

SUMMARY 3 7 9

KEY TERMS 3 8 0

REVIEW QUESTIONS 3 8 0

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 3 8 0

FURTHER READING 3 8 0

ETHICAL DILEMMAS 3 8 1

R E A D I N G S

All Animals Are Equal by Peter Singer 3 8 4

The Case for Animal Rights by Tom Regan 3 9 4

Difficulties with the Strong Animal Rights Position
by Mary Anne Warren 4 0 1

The Case for the Use of Animals in Biomedical Research by Carl Cohen 4 0 7

How to Argue for (and Against) Ethical Veganism by Tristram McPherson 4 1 4

C H A P T E R 1 3 Environmental Ethics 4 2 9

Issue File: Background 4 3 0

Climate Change—How We Know It’s Real 4 3 2

Moral Theories 4 3 4

Quick Review 4 3 5

Moral Arguments 4 3 5

Critical Thought—Should Pandas Pay The Price? 4 3 6

SUMMARY 4 3 8

KEY TERMS 4 3 8

Á CONTENTSxii

REVIEW QUESTIONS 4 3 9

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 4 3 9

FURTHER READING 4 3 9

ETHICAL DILEMMAS 4 4 0

R E A D I N G S

People or Penguins by William F. Baxter 4 4 2

It’s Not My Fault: Global Warming and Individual Moral Obligations by Walter
Sinnott-Armstrong 4 4 6

Are All Species Equal? by David Schmidtz 4 5 8

The Land Ethic by Aldo Leopold 4 6 5

C H A P T E R 1 4 Racism, Equality, and Discrimination 4 7 0

Issue File: Background 4 7 1

Critical Thought—White Privilege 4 7 4

Critical Thought—Are Legacy Admissions R acist? 4 7 9

Moral Theories 4 8 0

Critical Thought—Are Whites-Only Scholarships Unjust? 4 8 1

Quick Review 4 8 2

Moral Arguments 482

SUMMARY 484

KEY TERMS 485

REVIEW QUESTIONS 485

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 486

FURTHER READING 486

ETHICAL DILEMMAS 4 8 6

R E A D I N G S

Racisms by Kwame Anthony Appiah 4 8 9

Racism: What It Is and What It Isn’t by Lawrence Blum 4 9 9

Dear White America by George Yancy 5 0 8

Uses and Abuses of the Discourse of White Privilege by Naomi Zack 5 1 1

The Case Against Affirmative Action by Louis P. Pojman 5 1 4

In Defense of Affirmative Action by Tom L. Beauchamp 5 2 6

CONTENTS Á xiii

C H A P T E R 1 5 Sexual Morality 5 3 6

Issue File: Background 5 3 6

Sexual Behavior 5 3 6

Vital Stat s—Sexual Behavior 5 3 7

Campus Sexual Assault 5 3 8

Critical Thought—Proving Sexual Assault 5 4 0

Moral Theories 5 4 1

Moral Arguments 5 4 2

Quick Review 5 4 4

SUMMARY 5 4 4

KEY TERMS 5 4 5

REVIEW QUESTIONS 5 4 5

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 5 4 5

FURTHER READING 5 4 6

ETHICAL DILEMMAS 5 4 6

R E A D I N G S

Plain Sex by Alan H. Goldman 5 4 8

Sexual Morality by Roger Scruton 5 5 7

Why Shouldn’t Tommy and Jim Have Sex? A Defense of Homosexuality
by John Corvino 5 6 4

Seduction, Rape, and Coercion by Sarah Conly 5 7 1

Sex under Pressure: Jerks, Boorish Behavior, and Gender Hierarchy
by Scott A. Anderson 5 8 2

C H A P T E R 1 6 Free Speech on Campus 5 8 9

Issue File: Background 5 9 0

Critical Thought—Who Can Say The N-Word? 5 9 1

Microaggressions 5 9 3

Moral Theories 5 9 4

Critical Thought—Is Hate Speech Violence? 5 9 5

College Student s And Free Speech 5 9 6

Quick Review 5 9 7

Á CONTENTSxiv

CONTENTS Á  xv

xv

Moral Arguments 5 9 7

SUMMARY 5 9 7

KEY TERMS 5 9 8

REVIEW QUESTIONS 5 9 8

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 5 9 8

FURTHER READING 5 9 9

ETHICAL DILEMMAS 5 9 9

R E A D I N G S

Why It’s a Bad Idea to Tell Students Words Are Violence
by Jonathan Haidt and Greg Lukianoff 6 0 1

Restoring Free Speech on Campus by Geoffrey R. Stone and Will Creeley 6 0 5

Speech Codes and Expressive Harm by Andrew Altman 6 0 6

What “Snowflakes” Get Right About Free Speech by Ulrich Baer 6 1 5

The Progressive Ideas behind the Lack of Free Speech on Campus
by Wendy Kaminer 6 1 8

C H A P T E R 1 7 Drugs, Guns, and Personal Liberty 6 2 1

Issue File: Background 6 2 1

Drugs: Social Harms versus Personal Freedom 6 2 1

Critical Thought—Does Legalizing Medical Marijuana
Encourage Use Among Teenagers? 6 2 2

Diverse Views On Legalizing Marijuana 6 2 3

Gun Ownership: Security versus Individual Rights 6 2 4

Vital Stat s—Guns In The United States 6 2 5

Survey—Views Of U.S. Adult s On Gun Policy 6 2 6

Moral Theories 6 2 6

Moral Arguments 6 2 8

Quick Review 6 3 0

SUMMARY 6 3 1

KEY TERMS 6 3 1

REVIEW QUESTIONS 6 3 1

Á  CONTENTSxvixvi

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 6 3 2

FURTHER READING 6 3 2

ETHICAL DILEMMAS 6 3 2

R E A D I N G S

The Ethics of Addiction by Thomas Szasz 6 3 4

Against the Legalization of Drugs by James Q. Wilson 6 4 3

Gun Control by Hugh LaFollette 6 5 2

Political Philosophy and the Gun Control Debate: What Would Bentham,
Mills, and Nozick Have to Say? by Stacey Nguyen 6 6 3

C H A P T E R 1 8 Capital Punishment 6 6 6

Issue File: Background 6 6 6

Moral Theories 6 6 8

Critical Thought—The Moralit y Of Botched
Executions 6 7 0

Quick Review 6 7 2

Moral Arguments 6 7 3

Critical Thought—Different Cases,
Same Punishment 6 7 4

SUMMARY 6 7 5

KEY TERMS 6 7 6

REVIEW QUESTIONS 6 7 6

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 6 7 6

FURTHER READING 6 7 6

ETHICAL DILEMMAS 6 7 7

R E A D I N G S

The Ultimate Punishment: A Defense by Ernest van den Haag 6 7 9

Justice, Civilization, and the Death Penalty: Answering van den Haag
by Jeffrey H. Reiman 6 8 4

The Case Against the Death Penalty by Hugo Adam Bedau 6 9 0

A Life for a Life by Igor Primoratz 6 9 8

CONTENTS Á  xvii

C H A P T E R 1 9 Political Violence: War, Terrorism, and Torture 7 0 5

Issue File: Background 7 0 5

Critical Thought—Preemptive War On Iraq 7 0 8

Moral Theories 7 1 5

Moral Arguments 7 1 7

Quick Review 7 2 1

SUMMARY 7 2 1

KEY TERMS 7 2 2

REVIEW QUESTIONS 7 2 2

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 7 2 2

FURTHER READING 7 2 3

ETHICAL DILEMMAS 7 2 3

R E A D I N G S

Reconciling Pacifists and Just War Theorists by James P. Sterba 7 2 6

Drones, Ethics, and the Armchair Soldier by John Kaag 7 3 5

Can Terrorism Be Morally Justified? by Stephen Nathanson 7 3 7

The Case for Torturing the Ticking Bomb Terrorist by Alan M. Dershowitz 7 4 5

My Tortured Decision by Ali Soufan 7 5 4

C H A P T E R 2 0 The Ethics of Immigration 7 5 6

Issue File: Background 7 5 6

Critical Thought—Deporting Children 7 6 0

Quick Review 7 6 0

Moral Theories 7 6 1

Critical Thought—Accepting Or Rejecting Refugees 7 6 1

Moral Arguments 7 6 2

SUMMARY 7 6 3

KEY TERMS 7 6 3

REVIEW QUESTIONS 7 6 3

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 7 6 3

FURTHER READING 7 6 4

ETHICAL DILEMMAS 7 6 4

Á  CONTENTSxviii

R E A D I N G S

The Morality of Migration by Seyla Benhabib 7 6 6

The Moral Dilemma of U.S. Immigration Policy Revisted: Open Borders vs. Social
Justice? by Stephen Macedo 7 6 8

Selecting Immigrants by David Miller 7 8 1

Immigration and Freedom of Association by Christopher Heath Wellman 7 8 7

Freedom of Association Is Not the Answer by Sarah Fine 8 0 8

C H A P T E R 2 1 Global Economic Justice 8 2 0

Issue File: Background 8 2 0

Moral Theories 8 2 2

Vital Stat s—The Planet’s Poor And Hungry 8 2 2

Moral Arguments 8 2 3

Quick Review 8 2 5

SUMMARY 8 2 6

KEY TERMS 8 2 6

REVIEW QUESTIONS 8 2 6

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 8 2 6

FURTHER READING 8 2 7

ETHICAL DILEMMAS 8 2 7

R E A D I N G S

Famine, Affluence, and Morality by Peter Singer 8 2 9

Lifeboat Ethics by Garrett Hardin 8 3 5

A Critique of Lifeboat Ethics by William W. Murdoch and Allan Oaten 8 4 1

The Case for Aid by Jeffrey Sachs 8 5 0

G L O S S A R Y G – 1

A N S W E R S T O A R G U M E N T E X E R C I S E S A – 1

N O T E S N – 1

I N D E X I – 1

P R E F A C E

‘’

This fifth edition of Doing Ethics contains the most
extensive additions, updates, and improvements
of any previous version. The aims that have shaped
this text from the beginning have not changed: to
help students (1) see why ethics matters to society
and to themselves; (2) understand core concepts
(theories, principles, values, virtues, and the like);
(3) become familiar with the background (scientific,
legal, and otherwise) of contemporary moral prob-
lems; and (4) know how to apply critical reasoning
to those problems— to assess moral judgments and
principles, construct and evaluate moral arguments,
and apply and critique moral theories. This book,
then, tries hard to provide the strongest possible
support to teachers of applied ethics who want stu-
dents, above all, to think for themselves and compe-
tently do what is often required of morally mature
persons— that is, to do ethics.

These goals are reflected in the book’s extensive
introductions to concepts, cases, and issues; its
large collection of readings and exercises; and its
chapter- by- chapter coverage of moral reasoning—
perhaps the most thorough introduction to these
skills available in an applied ethics text. This latter
theme gets systematic treatment in five chapters,
threads prominently throughout all the others,
and is reinforced everywhere by “Critical Thought”
text boxes prompting students to apply critical
thinking to real debates and cases. The point of all
this is to help students not just study ethics but to
become fully involved in the ethical enterprise and
the moral life.

NEW FEATURES

• A new chapter on campus free speech, hate
speech, speech codes, speech and violence,
and news- making conflicts: Chapter 16—Free
Speech on Campus. It includes five readings by
notable free speech theorists and commentators.

• A new stand- alone chapter on an increasingly
influential approach to ethics: Chapter 8—
Feminist Ethics and the Ethics of Care. It
includes two new readings by important
theorists in the field.

• A new chapter on the justice of health care—
who should get it, who should supply it, and
who should pay for it: Chapter 11—Delivering
Health Care.

• A new chapter on immigration, immigration
policy, and contemporary conflicts over the
treatment of immigrants: Chapter 20—The Eth-
ics of Immigration. It includes recent research
on some widely believed but erroneous ideas
about U.S. immigration, as well as five readings
that represent contrasting perspectives on the
subject.

• A substantially revised chapter on social
equality, now covering race, racism, racial
prejudice, discrimination, white privilege,
and affirmative action: Chapter 14—Racism,
Equality, and Discrimination. It includes
four new readings on racism and inequality
by prominent participants in the ongoing
debates.

xix

xx Á PREFACE

• A revised chapter on sexuality, now including
examinations not only of sexual behavior but
also of campus sexual assault, rape, harass-
ment, and hookup culture: Chapter 15— Sexual
Morality.

• A greatly expanded chapter on personal liberty,
now including discussions and readings on
using drugs and owning guns: Chapter 17—
Drugs, Guns, and Personal Liberty.

• New sections in Chapter 4—The Power of
Moral Theories, on social contract theory and
one called “Devising a Coherent Moral Theory”
that shows by example how one might develop
a plausible theory of morality.

• A new focus on climate change in the envi-
ronmental ethics chapter and more emphasis
on torture and drone warfare in the political
violence chapter.

• Eleven new readings by women writers.

• Thirty- seven new readings in all to supplement
the already extensive collection of essays.

• New pedagogical elements: the inclusion of key
terms at the end of each chapter; the addition
of end- of- chapter review and discussion ques-
tions; and several new “Cases for Analysis”—
now called “Ethical Dilemmas.”

ORGANIZATION

Part 1 (Fundamentals) prepares students for the tasks
enumerated above. Chapter 1 explains why ethics is
important and why thinking critically about ethical
issues is essential to the examined life. It introduces
the field of moral philosophy, defines and illustrates
basic terminology, clarifies the connection between
religion and morality, and explains why moral rea-
soning is crucial to moral maturity and personal
freedom. Chapter 2 investigates a favorite doctrine
of undergraduates— ethical relativism— and exam-
ines its distant cousin, emotivism.

Part 2 (Moral Reasoning) consists of Chapters 3
and 4. Chapter 3 starts by reassuring students that
moral reasoning is neither alien nor difficult but
is simply ordinary critical reasoning applied to
ethics. They’ve seen this kind of reasoning before
and done it before. Thus, the chapter focuses on
identifying, devising, diagramming, and evaluat-
ing moral arguments and encourages practice and
competence in finding implied premises, testing
moral premises, assessing nonmoral premises, and
dealing with common argument fallacies.

Chapter 4 explains how moral theories work
and how they relate to other important elements
in moral experience: considered judgments, moral
arguments, moral principles and rules, and cases
and issues. It reviews major theories and shows how
students can evaluate them using plausible criteria.

Part 3 (Theories of Morality, Chapters 5–8) cov-
ers key theories in depth— utilitarianism, ethical
egoism, social contract theory, Kant’s theory, nat-
ural law theory, virtue ethics, feminist ethics, and
the ethics of care. Students see how each theory is
applied to moral issues and how their strengths and
weaknesses are revealed by applying the criteria of
evaluation.

In Part 4 (Ethical Issues), each of thirteen chap-
ters explores a timely moral issue through discus-
sion and relevant readings: abortion, euthanasia
and physician- assisted suicide, health care, animal
welfare, environmental ethics, racism and equality,
sexual morality, free speech on campus, drug use,
gun ownership, capital punishment, political vio-
lence, terrorism, torture, immigration, and global
economic justice. Every chapter supplies legal,
scientific, and other background information on
the issue; discusses how major theories have been
applied to the problem; examines arguments that
have been used in the debate; and includes addi-
tional cases for analysis with questions. The read-
ings are a mix of well- known essays and surprising
new voices, both classic and contemporary.

xxiPREFACE Á 

PEDAGOGICAL FEATURES

In addition to “Critical Thought” boxes and “Ethi-
cal Dilemmas,” the end- of- chapter questions, and
the key terms, there are other pedagogical devices:

• “Quick Review” boxes that reiterate key points
or terms mentioned in previous pages

• Text boxes that discuss additional topics or
issues related to main chapter material

• Chapter summaries

• Suggestions for further reading for each issues
chapter

• Glossary

RESOURCES

This Fifth Edition is accompanied by InQuizi-
tive, Norton’s award- winning formative, adaptive
online quizzing program. InQuizitive activities,
written by Dan Lowe of University of Colorado
Boulder, motivate students to learn the core con-
cepts and theories of moral reasoning so that they’re
prepared to think critically about ethical issues.
The text is also supported by a full test bank, lecture
slides, and a coursepack of assignable quizzes and
discussion prompts that loads into most learning
management systems. Access these resources at
digital.wwnorton.com/doingethics5.

EBOOK

Norton Ebooks give students and instructors an
enhanced reading experience at a fraction of the
cost of a print textbook. Students are able to have
an active reading experience and can take notes,
bookmark, search, highlight, and even read offline.
As an instructor, you can even add your own notes
for students to see as they read the text. Norton
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for Doing Ethics at digital.wwnorton.com/
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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The silent partners in this venture are the many
reviewers who helped in countless ways to make
the book better. They include Marshall Abrams
(University of Alabama at Birmingham), Harry
Adams (Prairie View A&M University), Alex Aguado
(University of North Alabama), Edwin Aiman
(University of Houston), Daniel Alvarez (Colorado
State University), Peter Amato (Drexel Univer-
sity), Robert Bass (Coastal Carolina University),
Ken Beals (Mary Baldwin College), Helen Becker
(Shepherd University), Paul Bloomfield (Univer-
sity of Connecticut), Robyn Bluhm (Old Dominion
University), Vanda Bozicevic (Bergen Community
College), Brent Braga (Northland Community and
Technical College), Joy Branch (Southern Union
State Community College), Barbara A. Brown
(Community College of Allegheny County),
Mark Raymond Brown (University of Ottawa),
David C. Burris (Arizona Western College), Mat-
thew Burstein (Washington and Lee University),
Gabriel R. Camacho (El Paso Community College),
Jay Campbell (St. Louis Community College at Mer-
amec), Kenneth Carlson (Northwest Iowa Commu-
nity College), Jeffrey Carr (Illinois State University),
Alan Clark (Del Mar College), Andrew J. Cohen
(Georgia State University), Elliot D. Cohen (Indian
River State College), Robert Colter (Centre Col-
lege), Timothy Conn (Sierra College), Guy Crain
(University of Oklahoma), Sharon Crasnow (Norco
College), Kelso Cratsley (University of Massachu-
setts, Boston), George Cronk (Bergen Community
College), Kevin DeCoux (Minnesota West Com-
munity and Technical College), Lara Denis (Agnes
Scott College), Steve Dickerson (South Puget Sound
Community College), Nicholas Diehl (Sacramento
City College), Robin S. Dillon (Lehigh University),
Peter Dlugos (Bergen Community College), Matt
Drabek (University of Iowa), David Drebushenko
(University of Southern Indiana), Clint Dunagan
(Northwest Vista College), Paul Eckstein (Bergen
Community College), Andrew Fiala (California

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xxii Á PREFACE

State University, Fresno), Stephen Finlay (Univer-
sity of Southern California), Matthew Fitzsimmons
(University of North Alabama), Tammie Foltz (Des
Moines Area Community College), Tim Fout (Uni-
versity of Louisville), Dimitria Gatzia (University
of Akron), Candace Gauthier (University of North
Carolina, Wilmington), Mark Greene (University
of Delaware), Kevin Guilfoy (Carroll University),
Katherine Guin (The College at Brockport: SUNY),
Meredith Gunning (University of Massachusetts,
Boston), Don Habibi (University of North Carolina,
Wilmington), Barbara M. Hands (University of
North Carolina, Greensboro), Craig Hanks (Texas
State University), Jane Haproff (Sierra College), Ed
Harris (Texas A&M University), Carol Hay (Univer-
sity of Massachusetts Lowell), Blake Heffner …

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