Do Adult Caenorhabditis Elegans Suffer From Neurotoxicity After Being Overexposed To Volatile Anesthetics? Write the first draft of a broad review article on your selected topic with the history behind current research and directions of research being investigated.
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Do adult Caenorhabditis elegans suffer from neurotoxicity after being overexposed to volatile
a. C. elegans as model organisms (General Statement or few words)
i. Ruszkiewicz JA, Pinkas A, Miah MR, Weitz RL, Lawes MJA, Akinyemi
AJ, Ijomone OM, Aschner M. C. elegans as a model in developmental
neurotoxicology. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 2018.
1. This article discusses the benefits of using C. elegans as a model
organism in various research fields. In recent years, C. elegans
have been increasingly used in neural developmental and
toxicology studies. In these experiments C. elegans were exposed
to six toxins and were observed. The results showed that they
shared similarities with mammals in their response to toxins. This
indicates that C. elegans could possibly be used to predict the
effects of neurotoxicants on the developing brain.
ii. Leung MCK, Williams PL, Benedetto A, Au C, Helmcke KJ, Aschner M,
Meyer JN. 2008. Caenorhabditis elegans: An Emerging Model in
Biomedical and Environmental Toxicology. Toxicological Sciences.
1. This article further highlights the importance of using C.
elegans in toxicology and biomedical research. Although
they are simple creatures, C. elegans contain 60-80% of
human genes. This article also points out the similarities in
the nervous system of C. elegans and vertebrae. Their clear
bodies, short lifespans, and high fertility rates make them
keen specimen to identify genetic alternations.
b. Longterm/overuse of anesthetics could cause neural deficiencies or neurotoxicity
1. Gentry KR, Steele LM, Sedensky MM, Morgan PG. Early
developmental exposure to volatile anesthetics causes behavioral
defects in Caenorhabditis elegans. Anesthesia and analgesia.
i. In this article researchers discuss the ramifications of overusing
anesthetics in the developing stages. Anesthetic overexposure
can lead to cell death in the brain which can lead to neural
defects. Young C. elegans exposed were exposed to volatile
anesthetics and were observed. The results showed that
prolonged exposure to anesthetics did cause function
ii. Awal MR, Wirak GS, Gabel CV, Connor CW. 2020. Collapse of Global
Neuronal States in Caenorhabditis elegans under Isoflurane Anesthesia.
Anesthesiology. 133(1):133–144. doi:10.1097/aln.0000000000003304.
1. This article looked to see if the use of isoflurane anesthesia
caused desynchrony in the neurons which could result in a
collapse of the nervous system. A light-sheet microscope
was used to image the head of C. elegans whole neural
activity was also measured. The results showed that
isoflurane anesthesia cause disintegration neuronal activity
between neurons at 4% and 8% of dosage.
c. Neurotoxicity has the potential to affect organisms on a genetic level
i. Zhang T, Ni C, Li C, Lu P, Chen D, Dong Y, Whetstine JR, Zhang Y, Xie
Z. 2021. Isoflurane impairs oogenesis through germ cell apoptosis in C.
elegans. Scientific Reports. 11(1). doi:10.1038/s41598-021-93737-0.
1. In this article researchers observed the effects of isoflurane
anesthetics on fertility rates and oogenesis. It was observed
that while isoflurane did impair oogenesis, it was unclear if
it affected the sperm of male C. elegans. It was also
determined that isoflurane hinders oogenesis by inducting
oxidative stress and germ cell apoptosis (death).
ii. d’Amora M, Giordani S. 2018. The Utility of Zebrafish as a Model for
Screening Developmental Neurotoxicity. Frontiers in Neuroscience. 12.
1. This article does not involve C. elegans but it does introduce
the Zebrafish as a potential organism to observe
neurotoxicity. The zebrafish has many advantages such as
its high fertility rate, small size and brain development. The
biggest advantage is that that are morphologically and
physiologically homologous to humans. In order to examine
brain development, gene expression patterns, neural
morphogenesis, and neurobehavioral profiling were used.
However, due to differing protocols, an understanding of the
potential neurotoxicity of chemicals during development has
yet to be reached.