DISCUSSION POST WATCH THE MOVIE AMERICAN FACTORY OBSERVE THE LEADERSHIP OF CHAIRMAN CAO and DISCUSS HIS LEADERSHIP STYLE PLEASE USE THE MATERIAL FROM

 

WATCH THE MOVIE 

AMERICAN FACTORY 

OBSERVE THE LEADERSHIP OF CHAIRMAN CAO and DISCUSS HIS LEADERSHIP STYLE 

PLEASE USE THE MATERIAL FROM CAMERON & GREEN 

and the topics we discussed in lectures CHAPTER 4 Leading change 

Making sense of change management
chapter 4 – LEADING CHANGE

Trinity Western University

LDRS 420

Introduction

Good leadership is well-rounded leadership.

All four metaphors of organizations give rise to useful notions of leadership. We cannot get stuck in one metaphor, or one way of doing things, and therefore appear one-dimensional in our range of styles and approach

The machine metaphor;

The political system metaphor;

The organism metaphor; and

The flux and transformation metaphor.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 132-136.

Introduction (con’t)

MetaphorAdvantagesDisadvantages
MachineClear goals and the need for structure.Overuse results in micromanagement of outcomes and too little risk taking.
Political systemAdds the harsh reality of organizational life, reminds us of the necessity of involving influential people when change is desired.Overuse can be seen as manipulation.
OrganismHighlights the need for people to be involved, and to feel the need for change.Runs the risk of moving too slowly and too late.
Flux and transformationOrganizations and their people cannot be wholly controlled unless we rule by fear!Leaders must encourage discussion of conflicts and tensions to enable change to emerge, while avoid the gap of being too vague and lacking direction.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 132-136.

Introduction (con’t)

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 132-136.

See Table 4.1 Leadership linked to organizational metaphors (p. 153-154)

MetaphorNature of changeLeader’s roleType of leadership requiredTypical pitfalls for the leader
MachineThe designed end state can be worked towards. Resistance must be managed. Change needs to be planned and controlled.Chief designer and implementer of the changes.Project management.
Goal setting. Monitoring and controlling.
Micro-management by leader means activity focuses on measuring, rather than experimenting or taking risk.

Introduction (con’t)

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 132-136.

See Table 4.1 Leadership linked to organizational metaphors (p. 153-154) (con’t)

MetaphorNature of changeLeader’s roleType of leadership requiredTypical pitfalls for the leader
Political systemChanges must be supported by a powerful person.
Change needs a powerful coalition behind it.
Winners and losers are important.
Politician – powerful speaker and behind the scenes negotiator.Visionary.
Building a powerful coalition.
Connecting agendas.
Change leaders are seen as Machiavellian manipulators.
Leaders cannot be trusted, so people comply rather than commit. People do the minimum.
Leaders begin to follow their own agenda (cover their backs), rather than some higher purpose.

Introduction (con’t)

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 132-136.

See Table 4.1 Leadership linked to organizational metaphors (p. 153-154) (con’t)

MetaphorNature of changeLeader’s roleType of leadership requiredTypical pitfalls for the leader
OrganismsChange is adaptive. Individuals and groups need to be psychologically aware of the ‘felt need’ for change. End state can be defined and worked towards.Coach, counselor and consultant, holding up the mirror.Coaching and supporting.The metaphor becomes an ideology. The change process becomes self-serving and achieves very little. There is a focus on reacting rather than initiating. Change happens, but too little too late.

Introduction (con’t)

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 132-136.

See Table 4.1 Leadership linked to organizational metaphors (p. 153-154) (con’t)

MetaphorNature of changeLeader’s roleType of leadership requiredTypical pitfalls for the leader
Flux and transformationChange cannot be managed, it emerges. Managers are part of the system, not outside the system. Conflict is useful. Managers enable good connections between people.Facilitator of emergent change.Getting the governing principles right. Enabling connectivity.
Amplifying issues.
Leaders and others involved become confused and frustrated. There is chaos. The change effort becomes vague and directionless.
There is no sense of progress to motivate future effort.
Contradictions become sticking point.

Introduction (con’t)

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 132-136.

Table 4.1 is also useful because it reveals a wide range of styles and skills required of leaders, depending on the metaphor in use:

Goal-setting;

Monitoring and controlling;

Coaching and supporting;

Building vision;

Communicating vision;

Building coalitions;

Networking;

Introduction (con’t)

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 132-136.

Table 4.1 is also useful because it reveals a wide range of styles and skills required of leaders, depending on the metaphor in use: (con’t)

Negotiating;

Facilitating;

Dealing with conflict.

We need to find a way through the various requirements of a leader to pinpoint the most important roles, skills, and styles and areas of focus needed to make change happen.

Introduction (con’t)

We will look at leading change in six sections:

Visionary leadership;

Roles that leaders play;

Leadership styles, qualities and skills;

Different leadership for different phases of change;

The importance of self-knowledge and inner resources, and

Summary and conclusions.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 132-136.

Visionary Leadership

Bennis on the characteristics of visionary leaders. (p. 137-138)

“The first basic ingredient of leadership is a guiding vision. The leader has a clear idea of what he wants to do – professionally and personally – and the strength to persist in the face of setbacks, even failures. Unless you know where you are going, and why, you cannot possible get there.”

~ Warren Bennis (1994) ~

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 137-138.

Visionary Leadership (con’t)

Bennis on the characteristics of visionary leaders. (p. 137-138) (con’t)

What does Winston Churchill, Margaret Thatcher, Nelson Mandela and Adolf Hitler has in common? (p. 137)

Clear vision;

Determination;

Great speaker, great presence;

Tough when needed, and

Able to stand alone.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 137-138.

Visionary Leadership (con’t)

Bennis on the characteristics of visionary leaders. (p. 137-138) (con’t)

Warren Bennis identified three basic ingredients of leadership: (p. 137)

A guiding vision;

Passion; and

Integrity.

He also developed a useful comparison of the differences between management and leadership (see Table 4.2, p. 138)

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 137-138.

Visionary Leadership (con’t)

Kotter on what leaders really do. (p. 138-140)

“Leaders are different from managers: ‘They don’t make plans; they don’t solve problems; they don’t even organize people. What leaders really do is prepare organizations for change and help them cope as they struggle through it.’

~ John Kotter (1996) ~

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 138-140.

Visionary Leadership (con’t)

Kotter on what leaders really do. (p. 138-140) (con’t)

Kotter echoes the ideas of Bennis.

Kotter’s three areas of focus for leaders (vs. the typical focus of a manager):

Setting direction versus planning and budgeting;

Aligning people versus organizing and staffing; and

Motivating people versus controlling and problem solving.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 138-140.

Visionary Leadership (con’t)

Kotter on what leaders really do. (p. 138-140) (con’t)

Examples of visionary leaders:

See Lieutenant Colonel Tim Collins’ speech.

(p. 138-139)

See Martin Luther King, Jr.’s speech “I Have a Dream”. (p. 140)

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 138-140.

Visionary Leadership (con’t)

Bass (in Bryman, 1992) distinguished between transactional and transformational leadership. (p. 140-141)

Transformational leadership involves the leader raising the followers’ sense of purpose and levels of motivation.

The aim of the leader and the followers combine into one purpose, and the leader raises the followers’ confidence and expectations of themselves.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 140-141.

Visionary Leadership (con’t)

Transactional

Focuses on the exchanges that occur between leaders and their followers.

Pseudo-Transformational

Focuses on the leader’s own interests rather than the interests of his followers.

Ref: Northouse, P.G. (2016). Leadership: Theory and Practice (7th ed.). California, U.S.A. SAGE Publications, Inc. p. 161-194.

Transformational

Process of engaging with others to create a connection that increases motivation and morality in both the leader and the follower

Visionary Leadership (con’t)

Bass (in Bryman, 1992) distinguished between transactional and transformational leadership. (p. 140-141) (con’t)

Transformational leadership comprises (4 I’s):

Idealized influence, Charisma;

Inspirational motivation;

Intellectual stimulation;

Individual consideration.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 138-140.

Visionary Leadership (con’t)

Bass (in Bryman, 1992) distinguished between transactional and transformational leadership. (p. 140-141) (con’t)

Transactional leadership is simply an exchange in which the leaders hand over rewards when followers meet expectations:

Contingent reward;

Management by exception.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 138-140.

Visionary Leadership (con’t)

Howard Gardner’s (1996) lessons about visionary leadership. (p. 141-142)

Those leaders who had really made a difference to the way others thought, felt and acted all appeared to have a central story or message.

Stories not only provide background but also help the followers to picture the future.

Stories must connect with the audience’s needs and be embodied in the leader himself.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 141-142.

Visionary Leadership (con’t)

Heifetz and Laurie (1997) say that vision is not the answer (p. 142-143).

What is needed is adaptive leadership – challenging people, taking them out of their comfort zone, letting people feel external pressure and exposing conflict.

There is a difference between the type of leadership needed to solve a routine technical problem and the type of leadership needed to enable complex organizational change.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 142-143.

Visionary Leadership (con’t)

Heifetz and Laurie (1997) (p. 142-143). (con’t)

Leaders of change should concentrate on scanning the environment, and drawing people’s attention to the complex adaptive challenges that the organization needs to address, such as culture changes, or changes in core processes. This means:

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 142-143.

Visionary Leadership (con’t)

Heifetz and Laurie (1997) (p. 142-143). (con’t)

Not solving problem for people, but giving the work back to them. e.g. Jesus showed Peter how to fish and did not give/get him

Not protecting people from bad news and difficulty, but allowing them to feel the distress of things not working well.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 142-143.

Visionary Leadership (con’t)

Ref: Northouse, P.G. (2016). Leadership: Theory and Practice (7th ed.). California, U.S.A. SAGE Publications, Inc. p. 261.

Visionary Leadership (con’t)

Jean Lipman-Blumen (2002): leaders need to make connections rather than build one vision. (p. 143-144)

We need to make connections among diverse people, ideas and institutions even when the parties themselves do not.

We need to reach out and collaborate even with old adversaries.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 143-144.

Visionary Leadership (con’t)

Jean Lipman-Blumen (2002): leaders need to make connections rather than build one vision. (p. 143-144)

We need to help others make good connections, and to develop a sense of common purpose across boundaries thus building commitment across a wide domain.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 143-144.

Visionary Leadership (con’t)

Jean Lipman-Blumen (2002) (p. 143-144). (con’t)

Lipman-Blumen’s 6 important strengths for connective leaders. (p. 144)

Ethical political savvy.

Authenticity and accountability.

A politics of commonalities.

Thinking long-term, acting short-term.

Leadership through expectation.

A quest for meaning.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 143-144.

Visionary Leadership (con’t)

Leadership for the 21st century: less vision, more connection. (p. 144-145)

Organization nowadays are more dispersed and less hierarchical.

Information is more freely available.

People want more from jobs than they used to.

Globalization and rise of social media à more independence of mind of individuals, increased inter-connectivity.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 144-145.

Visionary Leadership (con’t)

Leadership for the 21st century (p. 144-145). (con’t)

“Clear, visionary, authoritative leadership is no longer working.” (p. 144)

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 144-145.

ROLES THAT LEADERS PLAY

What role should the leader play in a change process? (p. 146)

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 146.

ROLES THAT LEADERS PLAY

What role should the leader play in a change process? (p. 145-147) (con’t)

The machine metaphor – the leader sits at the top of the organization, setting goals and driving them through to completion.

The political system metaphor – the leader needs to become the figurehead of a powerful coalition which attracts followers by communicating a compelling and attractive vision, and through negotiation and bargaining.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 145-147.

ROLES THAT LEADERS PLAY

What role should the leader play in a change process? (p. 145-147) (con’t)

The organism metaphor – the leader’s primary role is that of a coach, counsellor or consultant.

The flux and transformation metaphor – the leader is a facilitator of emergent change.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 145-147.

ROLES THAT LEADERS PLAY

What role should the leader play in a change process? (p. 144-147) (con’t)

How does the leader of a change process ensure that all the necessary roles are carried out?

Should the leader try to perform all these roles personally, or select a specific role for him- or herself and distribute supporting roles among his or her colleague?

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 145-147.

ROLES THAT LEADERS PLAY

Senge et al (1999). (p. 147-150) (con’t)

Successful leadership of change does not come from the top of an organization. It comes from within the organization.

Senior executives do not have as much power as they would like to think.

He attacks our dependence on the ‘hero leader’ – resulting in a vicious cycle à does not result in new thinking, organizational learning or renewal, or growth.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 147-150.

ROLES THAT LEADERS PLAY

Senge et al (1999). (p. 148) (con’t)

Figure 4.1 The search for a hero-CEO

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 148.

New CEO typically cuts costs and improves productivity and profit

Staff compete to please the boss rather than creating new products and processes

New crisis ensues

Search for hero-CEO

ROLES THAT LEADERS PLAY

Peter Senge et al (1999). (p. 147-150) (con’t)

Counteracts the reliance of top-level vision set out by Bennis and Kotter:

Little significant change can occur if it is driven from the top.

CEO programmes rolled out from the top are a great way to foster cynicism and distract everyone from real efforts to change.

Top management buy-ins is a poor substitute for genuine commitment and learning capabilities at all levels in an organization.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 147-150.

ROLES THAT LEADERS PLAY

Senge et al (1999) (p. 147-150) (con’t)

We need to develop communities of interdependent leaders across organizations – different types of leaders have different roles.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 147-150.

Executive leaders

Network leaders

Local Line leaders

ROLES THAT LEADERS PLAY

Senge et al (1999) (p. 147-150) (con’t)

Bushe, G.R. (1998) also talks about this. (see LDRS 303 Course Pack 18)

Ref: Bushe, G. R. (1998). Power and the Empowered Organization: The Design of Power in Highly Adaptive Organizations. The Organization Development Practitioner 30.4, pp. 31-43.

ROLES THAT LEADERS PLAY

O’Neill (2000) (p. 150-152)

Five specific leadership roles necessary for successful and sustained change efforts in organizations:

Sponsor – the authority to make the change happen.

Sustaining sponsor – make change in his/her own area of responsibility.

Implementer – implements the change.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 150-152.

ROLES THAT LEADERS PLAY

O’Neill (2000) (p. 150-152) (con’t)

Five specific leadership roles necessary for successful and sustained change efforts in organizations: (con’t)

Change agent – facilitator of change.

Advocate – has the ideas. Need people to make it happen.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 150-152.

LEADERSHIP STYLES, QUALITIES AND SKILLS

Goleman (2000) developed a set of six distinct leadership styles. (see LDRS 303 Course Pack 18 and supplementary notes in MyCourses)

Coercive style.

Authoritative style.

Affiliative style.

Democratic style.

Pacesetting style.

Coaching style.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 153-159.

LEADERSHIP STYLES, QUALITIES AND SKILLS

Goleman (1998): the importance of emotional intelligence for successful leaders. (see Emotional Intelligence 2.0, LDRS 303 Course Pack 14 and 15 and supplementary notes in MyCourses)

Self-awareness;

Self-management;

Social awareness; and

Social skills.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 153-159.

LEADERSHIP STYLES, QUALITIES AND SKILLS

Goleman (1998): the importance of emotional intelligence for successful leaders. (con’t)

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 153-159.

LEADERSHIP STYLES, QUALITIES AND SKILLS

Goleman (1998): the importance of emotional intelligence for successful leaders. (con’t)

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 153-159.

LEADERSHIP STYLES, QUALITIES AND SKILLS

Goleman (1998): the importance of emotional intelligence for successful leaders. (con’t)

Inner leadership (self-awareness, self-management and social awareness).

Competencies that are not necessarily observable.

Outer leadership (social skills).

Contains obvious observable behaviours.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 153-159.

.

LEADERSHIP STYLES, QUALITIES AND SKILLS

Cameron and Green (2008) derived a set of five leadership qualities to support change:

The Edgy Catalyser – focuses on creating discomfort to catalyse change.

The Visionary Motivator – focuses on engagement and buy-in to energize people.

The Measured Connector – focuses on sense of purpose and connectivity across the organization to help change to emerge.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 159-161.

.

LEADERSHIP STYLES, QUALITIES AND SKILLS

Cameron and Green (2008). (con’t)

The Tenacious Implementer – focuses on projects, plans, deadlines and progress to achieve results.

The Thoughtful Architect – focuses on frameworks, designs and complex fit between strategies and concepts to ensure that ideas provide a sound basis for change.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 159-161.

DIFFERENT LEADERSHIP FOR DIFFERENT PHASES OF CHANGE

Cameron and Green (2008) identified both the outer and inner leadership requirements for each phase of change: (see table 4.6, p. 162-163)

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 162-163.

DIFFERENT LEADERSHIP FOR DIFFERENT PHASES OF CHANGE

Kotter (1996) described the eight steps of change (see table 4.7, p. 164 and supplementary notes in MyCourses)

Good leaders must get all eight steps right.

The process will be a lot easier if groundwork is done well.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 164.

DIFFERENT LEADERSHIP FOR DIFFERENT PHASES OF CHANGE

Rosabeth Moss Kanter (2002) highlights:

The need to keep going in the change process, even when it gets tough.

The difficulties will come after the change has begun.

7 strategies to sustain a change process:

Tune into the environment.

Challenge the prevailing organizational wisdom.

Communicate a compelling aspiration.

Build coalitions.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 164-166.

DIFFERENT LEADERSHIP FOR DIFFERENT PHASES OF CHANGE

Rosabeth Moss Kanter (2002. (con’t)

7 strategies to sustain a change process: (con’t)

Transfer ownership to a working team.

Learn to persevere.

Make everyone a hero.

Sticky moments:

Forecasts fall short.

Roads curve.

Momentum slows.

Critics emerge.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 164-166.

DIFFERENT LEADERSHIP FOR DIFFERENT PHASES OF CHANGE

Bridges and Bridges (1991) has very clear ideas about what leaders need to do to make change work.

Managing ending phase.

Study the change carefully and identify who is likely to lose what.

Acknowledge those loses openly.

Allow those people to grieve and publicly express your own sense of loss.

Compensate people for their losses.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 166-168.

DIFFERENT LEADERSHIP FOR DIFFERENT PHASES OF CHANGE

Bridges and Bridges (1991). (con’t)

Managing ending phase. (con’t)

Give people information again and again.

Define what is over and what is not.

Find ways to ‘mark the ending’.

Ho

Looking for this or a Similar Assignment? Click below to Place your Order