Discussion Initial Postings: Read and reflect on the assigned readings for the week. Then post what you thought was the most important concept(s), method(s

 Initial Postings: Read and reflect on the assigned readings for the week. Then post what you thought was the most important concept(s), method(s), term(s), and/or any other thing that you felt was worthy of your understanding in each assigned textbook chapter.

Your initial post should be based upon the assigned reading for the week, so the textbook should be a source listed in your reference section and cited within the body of the text. Other sources are not required but feel free to use them if they aid in your discussion.

Also, provide a graduate-level response to each of the following questions:

  1. Research has shown that Monday is the highest negative-affect day across most cultures. However, in some countries, negative affect is lower on Friday and Saturday than on Sunday. What are two explanations for this discrepancy? 

[Your post must be substantive and demonstrate insight gained from the course material. Postings must be in the student’s own words – do not provide quotes!]

 [Your initial post should be at least 450+ words and in APA format (including Times New Roman with font size 12 and double spaced). 

Book:   

Robbins, S. P., & Judge, T. (2022). Essentials of Organizational Behavior. Student Value Edition. Pearson 15th Edition. 

Essentials of Organizational Behavior

Fifteenth Edition

Chapter 4

Emotions and Moods

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

1

Learning Objectives

4.1 Differentiate between emotions and moods.

4.2 Identify the sources of emotions and moods.

4.3 Show the impact emotional labor has on employees.

4.4 Describe affective events theory.

4.5 Describe emotional intelligence.

4.6 Identify strategies for emotion regulation.

4.7 Apply concepts about emotions and moods to specific OB issues.

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2

What Are Emotions and Moods?
Learning Objective 4.1

Emotions influence our attitudes

Affect, emotions, and moods and related

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Emotions can greatly influence our attitudes towards others, our decision making, and our behaviors. We are human and cannot set aside our emotions, but we can acknowledge and work with them.

Affect is a generic term that covers a broad range of feelings people experience. This includes both emotions and moods. Emotions are intense feelings that are directed at someone or something. Moods are the feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and that lack a contextual stimulus.

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Affect, Emotions, and Moods (Exhibit 4-1)

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Affect is a broad term that encompasses emotions and moods. Affect varies by its valence, or the degree to which the feelings are positive or negative.

Long Description:

The details of the diagram are as below:

Affect: Defined as a broad range of feelings that people experience. Affect can be experienced in the form of emotions or moods. More general (two main dimensions – positive affect and negative affect – that are composed of multiple specific emotions.)

Emotions: Caused by specific event; Very brief in duration (seconds or minutes); Specific and numerous in nature (many specific emotions such as anger, fear, sadness, happiness, disgust, surprise); Usually accompanied by distinct facial expressions.

Moods: Cause is often general and unclear; Last longer than emotions (hours or days); Generally, not indicated by distinct expressions.

Affect is connected to moods and emotions by two separate unidirectional arrow, whereas moods and emotion are interconnected to each other through a bi-directional arrow.

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The Basic Moods: Positive and Negative Affect

Positive affect: a mood dimension consisting of positive emotions such as excitement, enthusiasm, and elation at the high end (high positive affect) and boredom, depression, and fatigue at the low end (low positive affect)

Negative affect: a mood dimension consisting of nervousness, stress, and anxiety at the high end (high negative affect) and contentedness, calmness, and serenity at the low end (low negative affect)

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Our basic moods carry positive and negative affects; they cannot be neutral. Emotions are grouped into general mood states.

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The Affective Circumplex (Exhibit 4-2)

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People rarely experience both positive and negative affect at the same time. Over time, we differ in how much we experience of each.

Long Description:

The details of the categorizations are as follows:

High positive affect: Alert, excited, elated, and happy.

Low negative affect: Content, serene, relaxed, and calm.

Low positive effect: Sad, depressed, bored, and fatigued.

High negative effect: Tense, nervous, stressed, and upset.

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The Basic Emotions

Six universal emotions

Anger

Fear

Sadness

Happiness

Disgust

Surprise

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Many researchers agree on six essentially universal emotions – anger, fear, sadness, happiness, disgust, and surprise. Some even plot them along a continuum: happiness – surprise – fear – sadness – anger – disgust. The closer two emotions are to each other on this continuum, the more likely people will confuse them. Emotions can differ depending on whether a society is individualistic or collectivistic in terms of the general outlook of its people.

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Moral Emotions

Emotions that have moral implications because of our instant judgment of the situation that evokes them

Moral disgust

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Research on moral emotions focuses on examples such as sympathy for the suffering of others, guilt about our own immoral behavior, anger about injustice done to others, and contempt for those who behave unethically.

8

Experiencing Moods and Emotions

Positive moods are somewhat more common than negative moods

Positivity offset: at zero input, most people experience a mildly positive mood

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The degree to which people experience positive and negative emotions varies across cultures. Some cultures value certain emotions more than others, which leads individuals to change their perspective on experiencing those emotions.

A positivity offset means when nothing particular is going on, most individuals experience a mildly positive mood.

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The Function of Emotions

Happy employees tend to have positive job attitudes

Do emotions make us irrational?

Emotions are critical to rational thought: they help us understand the world around us

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Happy employees tend to have positive job attitudes, engage in fewer withdrawal and counterproductive work behaviors, engage in more task and citizenship performance, and are even more successful than their unhappy counterparts.

There are some who think that emotions are linked to irrationality and expressing emotions in public may be damaging to your career or status. However, research has shown that emotions are necessary for rational thinking. Emotions help us make better decisions and help us understand the world around us. If we are going to make decisions, we need to incorporate both thinking and feeling.

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Sources of Emotions and Moods (1 of 3) Learning Objective 4.2

Personality

Some people experience certain moods and emotions more frequently than others

Affect intensity: experiencing the same emotions with different intensities

Time of day

People vary in their moods by time of day

Day of the week

People tend to be in their best mood Friday to Sunday

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Some people have built-in tendencies to experience certain moods and emotions more frequently than others do.

Affectively intense people experience both positive and negative emotions more deeply.

Generally, negative affect increases over the course of a day. Many are happier toward the end of the week or mid-day.

U.S. adults tend to experience their highest positive affect on Friday, Saturday, and Sunday with their lowest on Monday. These findings may not generalize to cultures that do not follow the Monday to Friday work schedule.

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Time-of-Day Effects on Mood of U.S. Adults as Rated From Twitter Postings (Exhibit 4-3)

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Levels of positive affect are greatest in the late morning, and the lowest in the late evening, on most days of the week. Levels of negative affect increase over the course of a day.

Long Description:

The vertical axis shows level of positive affect and is not quantified. The horizontal axis shows time-of-day for Saturday, Monday, and Thursday. The day lines follow hourly patterns with level of positive affect highest on Saturday lowest on Monday. The level of positive affect is high around midnight, plunges to a low around 4 a.m., increases and then levels off from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m., and then increases to the midnight peak.

Long Description:

The vertical axis shows level of negative affect and is not quantified. The horizontal axis shows time-of-day for Saturday, Monday, and Thursday. The day lines follow hourly patterns with level of negative affect highest on Monday and lowest on Thursday. The level of negative affect is high around midnight, plunges to a low around 7 a.m., increases and then levels off from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m., and then increases to a peak around 9 p.m.

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Sources of Emotions and Moods (2 of 3)

Weather

Illusory correlation

No impact according to research

Stress

Increased stress worsens moods

Sleep

Lack of sleep increases negative emotions and impairs decision making

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Weather is thought to have an impact on our emotions, but there is no proven effect. An illusory correlation occurs when we associate two events that, in reality, have no correlation.

Stress is an important factor and even at low levels it can cause our mood to change.

Sleep can be another factor that affects moods and decision making. It is important to get enough, and high quality levels, of sleep.

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Sources of Emotions and Moods (3 of 3)

Exercise

Enhances positive mood

Gender

Trivial differences

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Physical activity can also aid in keeping our moods upbeat and reduces perceptions of fatigue.

The stereotypical perceptions of women as “emotional” and men as “angry” persist in the workplace, despite little evidence that they are true.

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Emotional Labor
Learning Objective 4.3

Emotional labor: an employee’s expression of organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions at work

Emotional dissonance: when an employee has to project one emotion while simultaneously feeling another

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In many jobs there is an implied agreement on the types of emotions that should be expressed. For example, waitresses are supposed to be friendly and cheerful whether they are currently feeling that emotion or not. When employees don’t feel the emotion they are required to express, they may experience emotional dissonance. This can lead to burnout and frustration with the job.

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Felt vs. Displayed Emotions

Felt Emotions:

The individual’s actual emotions

Displayed Emotions:

The learned emotions that the organization requires workers to show and considers appropriate in a given job

Surface Acting – hiding one’s true emotions

Deep Acting – trying to change one’s feelings based on display rules

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An employee’s actual emotions are their felt emotions and this is in contrast to the emotions that are required or deemed appropriate by the organization, which are called displayed emotions. There are two levels of displayed emotions that can be expressed. They are both appropriately called acting. Surface acting occurs when an employee displays the appropriate emotions even when the employee doesn’t feel those emotions. Deep acting occurs when the employee actually changes the internal feelings to match displayed rules. This level of acting can be very stressful.

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Affective Events Theory
Learning Objective 4.4

How do emotions and moods influence job performance and satisfaction?

Affective events theory (AET): employees react emotionally to things that happen to them at work, and this reaction influences their job performance and satisfaction

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AET provides us with valuable insights into the role emotions play in primary organizational outcomes of job satisfaction and job performance.

Work events trigger positive or negative emotional reactions, to which employees’ personalities and moods predispose them to respond with greater or lesser intensity.

17

Emotional Intelligence (1 of 2)
Learning Objective 4.5

Emotional intelligence: a person’s ability to:

Perceive emotions in the self and others

Understand the meaning of these emotions

Regulate one’s emotions accordingly

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Emotional Intelligence (EI) is a growing area of study that is becoming increasingly important in the understanding of how individuals behave. EI is pulling in one’s understanding of emotions and their impact on behavior. Individuals who are emotionally intelligent will have a strong sense of self-awareness, recognizing their own emotions when experienced. They are also able to detect emotions in others. By understanding their own emotions and those of others, they can manage emotional cues and information to make decisions.

18

A Cascading Model of Emotional Intelligence (Exhibit 4-4)

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People who know their own emotions and are good at reading emotional cues are most likely to be effective.

Long Description:

In this diagram conscientiousness leads to perceive emotions in self and others. This perception, coupled with cognitive, leads to understand the meaning of emotions. Understanding coupled with emotional stability leads to regulate emotions.

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Emotional Intelligence (2 of 2)

Study of 11 U.S. presidents

EI predicts long-term popularity

Limitations

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One study of 11 U.S. presidents found the key quality that differentiated the successful from the unsuccessful presidents was emotional intelligence. Several studies also suggest EI predicts long-term popularity.

Limitations, however, suggest we need to achieve a better understanding of EI and learn how to best measure it. And the question remains whether or not EI can be learned.

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Emotion Regulation
Learning Objective 4.6

Emotion regulation: identifying and modifying the emotions you feel

Emotion regulation influences and outcomes

Personality

Workplace environment

Emotion regulation techniques

Cognitive reappraisal (reframing)

Social sharing (venting)

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Emotion regulation involves identifying and modifying the emotions you feel. Research on effective emotion regulation techniques is ongoing, but studies show that acknowledging, rather than suppressing, our emotional responses to situations and reframing, as can open expression of emotions, or venting.

Cognitive re-appraisal involves reframing our outlook on an emotional situation.

Not everyone is equally good at regulating emotions. The workplace environment influences an individual’s tendency to employ emotion regulation. In general, diversity in work groups increases the likelihood that you will regulate your emotions.

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OB Applications of Emotions and Moods (1 of 3)
Learning Objective 4.7

Selection – Employers should consider EI in hiring

Decision Making – Positive emotions can increase problem-solving skills

Creativity – Positive moods may increase creativity

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There are numerous applications of emotions and moods. These include selection of employees, decision making, and creativity. Employers should consider EI a factor in hiring for jobs that demand a high degree of social interaction. Positive people find better solutions (improving problem-solving skills).

There are two schools of thought on the relationship between creativity and emotions and moods. Some research suggests people in good moods tend to be more creative than people in bad moods. Other researchers suggest positive moods may relax people and hinder creativity. Individuals who worry more may perform better on creative tasks.

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OB Applications of Emotions and
Moods (2 of 3)

Motivation – Promoting positive moods may enhance employee motivation

Leadership – Sharing positive emotions enhances perceptions of leaders’ effectiveness

Customer Service – Customers “catch” emotions from employees (emotional contagion)

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Motivation, leadership, negotiation, and customer service are also work outcomes that are impacted by emotions and moods, and it is important for managers to understand the connection.

Giving people performance feedback influences their mood, which then influences their motivation. Managers may enhance employee motivation and performance by encouraging good moods.

Leaders are perceived as more effective when they share positive emotions, and followers are more creative in a positive emotional environment.

Workers’ emotional states influence the level of customer service they give, which influences customer satisfaction. This is primarily due to emotional contagion (catching emotions from others). Studies indicate a matching effect between employee and customer emotions.

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OB Applications of Emotions and
Moods (3 of 3)

Work-Life Satisfaction

Spill over

Deviant Workplace Behaviors

Those who feel negative emotions are more likely to engage in deviant behavior at work

Safety and Injury at Work

Bad moods can contribute to injuries on the job

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Job attitudes can influence our home life. A positive mood at work can spill over to your off-work hours, and a negative mood at work can be restored to a positive mood after a break.

Deviant workplace behaviors are often the result of negative emotions and significantly impact the workplace.

Negative emotions can also lead to increased injuries at work. Employees in negative moods tend to be more anxious, which can make them less able to cope effectively with hazards. Negative moods also make people more distractable – leading to careful behaviors.

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Implications for Managers (1 of 2)

Recognize that emotions are a natural part of the workplace and good management does not mean creating an emotion-free environment.

To foster effective decision making, creativity, and motivation in employees, model positive emotions and moods as much as is authentically possible.

Provide positive feedback to increase the positivity of employees. Of course, it also helps to hire people who are predisposed to positive moods.

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In summary, moods and emotions are important to the study of organizational behavior. Also, they are natural expressions and managers should not try to completely control the employees’ emotions, but they should be aware of the emotions and not ignore emotional indicators.

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Implications for Managers (2 of 2)

In the service sector, encourage positive displays of emotion, which make customers feel more positive and thus improve customer service interactions and negotiations.

Understand the role of emotions and moods to significantly improve your ability to explain and predict your coworkers’ and employees’ behavior.

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The more you understand the emotions of your employees, the better you will be able to predict their behavior.

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Discussion Questions

What are the implications for failing to differentiate how emotions are expressed across cultures? How can managers improve their ability to do so?

Can organizations help employees improve their levels of emotional intelligence. If so, how can this be achieved?

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Copyright

This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching their courses and assessing student learning. Dissemination or sale of any part of this work (including on the World Wide Web) will destroy the integrity of the work and is not permitted. The work and materials from it should never be made available to students except by instructors using the accompanying text in their classes. All recipients of this work are expected to abide by these restrictions and to honor the intended pedagogical purposes and the needs of other instructors who rely on these materials.

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