Criminal Investigation Replies 1. There are three major categories of cyber-crimes are against people, crimes against property, and crimes against the gov

Criminal Investigation Replies 1. There are three major categories of cyber-crimes are against people, crimes against property, and crimes against the government. Crimes against the government are when cybercrime is committed against the government. Cybercrimes against the government are cyber warfare, hacking, cyber terrorism, and pirated software. Crimes against property are some online crimes that occur against property such as a computer or server. These crimes include hacking, virus transmission, typo squatting, computer vandalism, and copyright infringement. Crimes against people are the distribution of child pornography, harassment, stalking, identity theft, spoofing, human trafficking, and credit card fraud.
A common protocol for processing a crime scene involving electron evidence is as follows: secure and evaluate the crime scene, conduct preliminary interviews, obtain a search warrant, document the crime scene, recognized, and identify the evidence. Collect a piece of preserved evidence, package, transport, and store evidence, and submit digital evidence, such as hard drives, for analysis and data recovery.
Store electronic evidence in a secure area away from temperature and humidity extremes and protected from magnetic sources, moisture, dust, and other harmful particles or contaminants. Do not use plastic bags. Digital evidence is volatile and fragile, and the improper handling of this evidence can alter it. Because of its volatility and fragility, protocols need to be followed to ensure that data is not modified during its handling (i.e., during its access, collection, packaging, transfer, and storage). These protocols delineate the steps to be followed when handling digital evidence. There are four phases involved in the initial handling of digital evidence: identification, collection, acquisition, and preservation. 

2. Three ways computer crimes can be categorized are “Computer as target, computer as tool, or computer as an incidental to the offense”(Hess, Kären M., Hess Orthmann 2021). 
Computer as target-When an unauthorized user takes control of someone else’scomputer and attacks it using hacking methods, viruses, and worms. 
Computer as a tool-When someone uses it for fraudulent activity, to gain access to private information such as passwords account numbers and stealing someone’s identity.  
Computer as incidental to an offense- When individuals use to commit crimes such as sex crimes, child pornography, and drug trafficking. 
Steps to take while processing a crime scene involving electronic evidence would be to have a search warrant first. Also, someone who is trained in this department thoroughly in order to preserve the needed evidence. All devices should be secured, anyone not authorized to touch these electronic devices should not do so. Everyone should be removed from the area that is not authorized to be there, the state the device is in should always stay the same. If it is off, it is to stay off, and it is on it should stay on. All the evidence on the computer should be collected before it is ever moved or turned off. This includes photos and documentation of all information on the screens, along with pictures of the actual computer what is near it and the position of anything around it. Other information collected are names of anyone that has used these electronic devices, any passwords and internet information available. The devices may also be dusted for fingerprints, and information printed off the computer to have a paper copies. All information from these electronic devices are backed up on disks to make information easily movable for litigation, and so there is always several copy. 

3. The U.S Department of Justice has defined three basic ways of categorizing computer crimes. Computer as target is when a computer or network’s confidentiality or integrity is attacked then resulting in theft of services or information or the damage of victim (Orthmann et al., 2017). The second way is computer as tool, which include crimes that transitioned from physical into the world of the internet such as fraud, gambling, harassment, or child pornography (Orthmann et al., 2017). Lastly, computer as incidental to an offense involves the significance of the computer’s role in executing a crime such as storing child pornography (Orthmann et al., 2017).
When investigating a crime scene with electronic evidence, it is important for investigators to not touch anything and follow the basic tenet: If it’s on, leave it on. If it’s off, leave it off (Orthmann et al., 2017). Police should avoid altering the condition of the evidence in which it was found and ensure that no authorized individual is at the crime scene. Preventing contamination of evidence should be their priority to avoid evidence from being destroyed. The electronic devices might have latent footprints or other forms of trace evidence so it’s best to preserve the evidence. Investigators should also photograph the crime scene with 360-degree coverage and photograph all aspects of a computer such as the monitor, computer, position of mouse or keyboard, etc. (Orthmann et al., 2017). Digital evidence is often contained in CDs or hard drives, which can be easily susceptible to damage. They should be stored in a secure area away from extreme temperatures and humidity, protected from harmful particles (Orthmann et al., 2017). It should also be noted that there should be reports on how the evidence was found and identify the type of evidence.

4. The three basic ways computer crime can be categorized is as a computer as target, computer as a tool and computer as an incident to the offense. An example of a computer as a target can be viruses, worms, or extortion. Computer as a tool is when a criminal uses a computer as a tool to commit a crime. For instance fraud, spam, and pharming are all computers as a tool. The steps taken for processing a crime scene involving electronic evidence is securing and investigating the crime scene. Then look for witnesses to interview, get a warrant to investigate the crime scene further. Identify any evidence,make sure it’s not contaminated and then document it. Lastly to collect, secure it correctly, transport the evidence so it can be examined. Storing electronic evidence is very important. The investigators need to store electronic evidence where it cannot be harmed or Sabotage with. It needs to be  packaged,  documented, labeled, marked, photographed, and stored. When a crime scene involves multiple electronic evidence, investigators must follow protocols of the investigation. These include identifying the evidence, collecting, interviewing and preserving the evidence. 

5. Computer crimes can be categorized in three ways: “Computer as a target, computer as a tool or computer as an incidental to the offense” (Orthmann et al., 2017). Computer as a target means when someone takes control of another computer without their permission, this can lead to the hacker taking information and infesting the victim’s computer with numerous malware. Computer as a tool is when someone uses their computers for crimes. This can be when criminal attempts to get authorized access to the victim’s private accounts and passwords as well as other personal information. They can use this as a scamming technique to either steal someone’s identity or blackmail the victim. Computer as an incidental to an offense can mean when the criminal chooses to use their computer to watch or sell child pornography. 
The steps to take when processing an electronic crime scene is to get a warrant to search the scene, make sure no unauthorized individuals are at the scene causing risks, question and do interviews. The warrant will also allow you to obtain the electronic device so it can be in police custody as evidence. The device should not be opened or touched unless the device is already open to decrease the risk of lost evidence or data. Once someone skilled in that area is able to proceed through the computer safely, they will be able to recover some lost data, any evidence, and documentation. All information found on the computer should be documented and also transferred and duplicated to somewhere safe and stored as evidence. Fingerprints should be documented when the computer is dusted for any DNA.

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