Comparing Oedipus and Beowulf Comparing the story of Oedipus Rex (Oedipus the King) and the Beowulf: An Anglo-Saxon Epic Poem
Compare between these two stories by using Fiction terms and MLA style 8th Edition MLA Rules / Updated July 2020 (N. Dorfeld)
Whenever you are citing something outside of your head, you need citations.
If done incorrectly, you could be accused of plagiarism, and no one wants that.
So, be sure to cite your sources twice: in the paper and at the end on a separate Works Cited page.
If you have any questions, please ask your instructor, a librarian, review The Bedford Handbook, or refer to this handout, which was taken from the Purdue Online Writing Lab website.
In-text / author listed
In the paper, cite the author’s last name and page number. See below for multiple versions.
Romantic poetry is characterized by the “spontaneous overflow of powerful emotions” (Wordsworth 263).
Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a “spontaneous overflow of powerful emotions” (263).
Wordsworth extensively explored the role of emotion in the creative process (263).
In-text / title only
No author listed? Cite the title in quotation marks. Also, add the page number.
We see so many global warming hotspots in North America likely because this region has “more readily accessible climatic data and more comprehensive programs to monitor and study environmental change . . .” (“Impact of Global Warming” 6).
Two different authors
What if two authors have the same last name?
Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer children (R. Miller 12), others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration (A. Miller 46).
Two works / same author
To avoid confusion, cite the title where referring to different works by the same author.
Lightenor has argued that computers are not useful tools for small children (“Too Soon” 38), though he has acknowledged that early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development in a child’s second and third year (“Hand-Eye Development” 17).
If anything is word-for-word, always use quotation marks.
According to some psychologists, dreams express “profound aspects of personality” (Foulkes 184), though others disagree.
According to Foulkes’s study, dreams may express “profound aspects of personality” (184).
Long quotations / block
Long quotations / block quote = Longer than four lines. Tab in 1/2 inch. Omit quotation marks, and add the period before the in-text citation.
Nelly Dean treats Heathcliff poorly and dehumanizes him throughout her narration:
They entirely refused to have it in bed with them, or even in their room, and I had no more sense, so, I put it on the landing of the stairs, hoping it would be gone on the morrow. By chance, or else attracted by hearing his voice, it crept to Mr. Earnshaw’s door, and there he found it on quitting his chamber. Inquiries were made as to how it got there; I was obliged to confess, and in recompense for my cowardice and inhumanity was sent out of the house. (Brontë 78)
Use three dots if you do not want to cite the entire passage.
In an essay on urban legends, Jan Harold Brunvand notes that “some individuals make a point of learning every recent rumor or tale . . . and in a short time a lively exchange of details occurs” (78).
Works Cited page
Alphabetize the list of Works Cited by the first word in each entry (usually the author’s last name).
This is not a complete listing, but it will help get you started.
Gleick, James. Chaos: Making a New Science. Penguin, 1987.
Henley, Patricia. The Hummingbird House. MacMurray, 1999.
Two authors +
Gillespie, Paula, and Neal Lerner. The Allyn and Bacon Guide to Peer Tutoring. Allyn and
Wysocki, Anne Frances, et al. Writing New Media: Theory and Applications for Expanding the Teaching of Composition. Utah State UP, 2004.
Chapter within a book
Harris, Muriel. “Talk to Me: Engaging Reluctant Writers.” A Tutor’s Guide: Helping Writers One to One, edited by Ben Rafoth, Heinemann, 2000, pp. 24-34.
Swanson, Gunnar. “Graphic Design Education as a Liberal Art: Design and Knowledge in the University and The ‘Real World.'” The Education of a Graphic Designer, edited by Steven Heller, Allworth Press, 1998, pp. 13-24.
Burns, Robert. “Red, Red Rose.” 100 Best-Loved Poems, edited by Philip Smith, Dover, 1995, p. 26.
The Bible. The New Oxford Annotated Version, 3rd ed., Oxford UP, 2001.
Poniewozik, James. “TV Makes a Too-Close Call.” Time, 20 Nov. 2000, pp. 70-71.
Buchman, Dana. “A Special Education.” Good Housekeeping, Mar. 2006, pp. 143-48.
Scholarly article / print
Bagchi, Alaknanda. “Conflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the Subaltern in Mahasweta Devi’s Bashai Tudu.” Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature, vol. 15, no. 1, 1996, pp. 41-50.
Duvall, John N. “The (Super)Marketplace of Images: Television as Unmediated Mediation in DeLillo’s White Noise.” Arizona Quarterly, vol. 50, no. 3, 1994, pp. 127-53.
Scholarly article / online
Alonso, Alvaro, and Julio A. Camargo. “Toxicity of Nitrite to Three Species of Freshwater Invertebrates.” Environmental Toxicology, vol. 21, no. 1, 3 Feb. 2006, pp. 90-94. Wiley Online Library, doi:10.1002/tox.20155. Accessed 26 May 2009.
Langhamer, Claire. “Love and Courtship in Mid-Twentieth-Century England.” Historical Journal, vol. 50, no. 1, 2007, pp. 173-96. ProQuest, doi:10.1017/S0018246X06005966. Accessed 27 May 2009.
Lundman, Susan. “How to Make Vegetarian Chili.” eHow, 2015, www.ehow.com/how_10727_make-vegetarian-chili.html. Accessed 6 July 2015.
No author listed
“Athlete’s Foot – Topic Overview.” WebMD, 25 Sept. 2014, www.webmd.com/skin-problems- and-treatments/tc/athletes-foot-topic-overview. Accessed 12 July 2020.
Kunka, Andrew. “Re: Modernist Literature.” Received by John Watts, 15 Nov. 2000.
Neyhart, David. “Re: Online Tutoring.” Received by Joe Barbato, 1 Dec. 2016.
@tombrokaw. “SC demonstrated why all the debates are the engines of this campaign.” Twitter, 22 Jan. 2012, 3:06 a.m., twitter.com/tombrokaw/status/160996868971704320.
McGonigal, Jane. “Gaming and Productivity.” YouTube, uploaded by Big Think, 3 July 2012, www.youtube.com/watch?v=mkdzy9bWW3E.
“8 Hot Dog Gadgets put to the Test.” YouTube, uploaded by Crazy Russian Hacker, 6 June 2016,
Smith, Jane. Personal interview. 19 May 2014.
Movie / film
Speed Racer. Directed by Lana Wachowski and Lilly Wachowski, performances by Emile Hirsch, Nicholas Elia, Susan Sarandon, Ariel Winter, and John Goodman, Warner Brothers, 2008.
Lucas, George, director. Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope. Twentieth Century Fox, 1977.
Rae Morris. “Skin.” Cold, Atlantic Records, 2014. Spotify,
Beyoncé. “Pray You Catch Me.” Lemonade, Parkwood Entertainment, 2016, www.beyonce.com/album/lemonade-visual-album/.
Nirvana. “Smells Like Teen Spirit.” Nevermind, Geffen, 1991.
Works Cited (2020 Sample)
Dean, Cornelia. “Executive on a Mission: Saving the Planet.” The New York Times, 22 May 2007, www.nytimes.com/2007/05/22/science/earth/22ander.html?_r=0. Accessed 29 May 2019.
Ebert, Roger. Review of An Inconvenient Truth, directed by Davis Guggenheim. Ebert Digital LLC, 1 June 2006, www.rogerebert.com/reviews/an-inconvenient-truth-2006. Accessed 15 June 2019.
Gowdy, John. “Avoiding Self-organized Extinction: Toward a Co-evolutionary Economics of Sustainability.” International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, vol. 14, no. 1, 2007, pp. 27-36.
Harris, Rob, and Andrew C. Revkin. “Clinton on Climate Change.” The New York Times, 17 May 2007, www.nytimes.com/video/world/americas/1194817109438/clinton-on-climate- change.html. Accessed 29 July 2016.
Leroux, Marcel. Global Warming: Myth or Reality?: The Erring Ways of Climatology. Springer, 2005.
Milken, Michael, et al. “On Global Warming and Financial Imbalances.” New Perspectives Quarterly, vol. 23, no. 4, 2006, p. 63.
Nordhaus, William D. “After Kyoto: Alternative Mechanisms to Control Global Warming.” American Economic Review, vol. 96, no. 2, 2006, pp. 31-34.
Regas, Diane. “Three Key Energy Policies That Can Help Us Turn the Corner on Climate.” Environmental Defense Fund, 1 June 2016, www.edf.org/blog/2016/06/01/3-key-energy- policies-can-help-us-turn-corner-climate. Accessed 19 July 2016.
Revkin, Andrew C. “Clinton on Climate Change.” The New York Times, 17 May 2007, www.nytimes.com/video/world/americas/1194817109438/clinton-on-climate- change.html. Accessed 29 July 2016.
Shulte, Bret. “Putting a Price on Pollution.” US News & World Report, vol. 142, no. 17, 14 May 2007, p. 37. Ebsco, Access no: 24984616.
Uzawa, Hirofumi. Economic Theory and Global Warming. Cambridge UP, 2003.