Change Management Change model: You will choose one model regarding organizational change and explain it in depth. You are to research the model and the le

Change model: You will choose one model regarding organizational change and explain it in depth. You are to research the model and the leadership behaviours needed to sustain the models change. How does this model fit a chosen organizational needs and abilities.  Given what you know about yourself and change would you be able to lead the change?  Maximum 6 pages. (5 + References)

Check from slide 13 to see the models and the model is otters 8 step model.

Introduction

Research you done

explanation about the model as a change agent how you going to apply this model for any of the organization select one organisation or a company for that

Conclusion

References

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Pressure for Change

“We can’t solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them.”

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1.

What we feel

-safe

-respected

-supported

“Cognitive

Brain”

“Emotional

Brain”

2.

What we know

-trusted info.

-promises kept

-culture valued

Memory

The positively wired “change brain”

3.

What we think

Positive suggestions
Problem-solving skills
Part of the process

©Eli Sopow PhD

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Finding and removing the fear…using communications, connectivity and cooperation to create trusted relationships…will literally re-wire the brain over time. A new CONTEXT will be created.

Neural networks will be created through synaptic connections that bond together to affect how we feel, what we know, and how we think. A NEW CONTEXT will be created.

Understanding the natural nature of change means we feel safe, respected, and supported.

Our memory of change will recall trusted information, promises that are kept, and a culture that is valued. A POSITIVE CONTEXT.

And our cognitive thought processes will be involved in creative problem-solving, collaboration, and productive and positive contributions.

Can “change” be controlled?

Can change be managed?

Is management the same as control?

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©Eli Sopow PhD

First find the fear (what are people really afraid of?)

Link changes of climate to best of culture—don’t CHANGE the culture, GROW the culture

Respect individual power, pride and profit

Communicate (2-way) in a shared language

Present an “end state”—vision—that others can easily embrace and want to be involved in

Focus on simple actions, within local control, that can be quickly achieved

Celebrate and learn from your success

Turning change conflict into collaboration

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©Eli Sopow PhD

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Context is everything. Believing is seeing (not seeing is believing). If we believe strongly in something…that belief shapes our context.

Find the fear…(where’s the loss of power and the lack of information?).

Create empowerment through simple and easy ways for people to have a say and to get involved. Create networks of collaboration and communication. Share information widely, openly, and frequently. Encourage courteous criticism.

Organizational culture is deep CONTEXT. Changing everyday behaviours and actions…the climate…is easier than changing the culture. Eventually the culture will grow stronger from that.

Our self-image, our CONTEXT, is all about the power we have (no matter how small), the pride we have in our job, and the profit we receive from praise and our accomplishments. Understand and respect that.

No two people think in exactly the same way. Listen and share, but also continually validate that there’s a common understanding.

MAKING SENSE OF CHANGE MANAGEMENT
CHAPTER 3
ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

Esther Cameron and Mike Green

2019, 5th Edition.

Four different approaches to the change process, organised by metaphor
(Adapted from Cameron and Green, Table 3.1)

MetaphorHow change is tackledWho is responsibleGuiding principles
MachineSenior managers define targets and timescale. Consultants advise on techniques. Change programme is rolled out from the top down. Training is given to bridge behaviour gap.Senior managementChange must be driven. Resistance can be managed. Targets set at the start of the process define the direction.
Political SystemA powerful group of individuals builds a new coalition with new guiding principles. There are debates, maneuverings and negotiations which eventually leads to the new coalition either winning or losing. Change then ensues as new people are in power with new views and new ways of allocating scarce resources. Those around them position themselves to be winners rather than losers.Those with powerThere will be winners and losers. Change requires new coalitions and new negotiations.
OrganismsFirst a research phase where data is gathered on the relevant issue (customer feedback, employee survey etc.). Next data is presented to those responsible for making changes. There is discussion about what the data means, and then what needs to be done. A solution is collaboratively designed and moved towards, with maximum participation. Training and support are given to those who need to make significant changes.Business improvement
/HR/OD managers
Participation and involvement, and awareness of the need for change. Change is collaboratively designed as a response to changes in the environment. People require support.
Flux and transformationSelf-organisation is a powerful force in systems. Through interaction between individuals/teams within a set of minimal, but strict rules, creative solutions arise to existing issues. Managers ‘hold the space’ and support issues to be resolved without resorting to traditional forms of control or top-down solutions. Access to system-wide information supports flow and allows natural amplification and dampening forces to be felt.Someone with authority to actChange cannot be managed; it emerges. Conflict and tension give rise to change. Managers are part of the process. Their job is to highlight gaps and contradictions.

Frameworks for change and their associated metaphors
(Cameron and Green, Table 3.2)

Frameworks for changeMachine metaphorPolitical System metaphorOrganisms metaphorFlux and transformation metaphor
Lewin, three-step model
Bullock and Batten, planned change
Kotter, dual operating system
Beckhard and Harris, change formula
Nadler and Tushman, congruence model
Bridges, managing the transition
Carnall, change management model
Senge, systemic model
Laloux and Robertson, self governing structures

Summary

  • It is useful to understand how the language people use and the way they think about the organization (i.e. their metaphor ‘in use’) can heavily influence their approaches to leadership.
  • Questioning our own assumptions, and becoming more aware of them can be helpful in becoming a more effective leader
  • Leaders and consultants need to be able to flexibly select appropriate models and approaches for particular situations, as well as help others see how flexing their approaches can be beneficial.

REFLECT & DISCUSS

  • Consider your own organization, family or community group. Which metaphor is used most in that system to describe the way things are, what’s working well and how change needs to be tackled? Is there another metaphor in use too? What are the implications of these ways of seeing things in terms of success and healthy functioning?
  • Which metaphor are you most drawn to in your own work/life? List the key beliefs underpinning that metaphor, and circle the ones you are open to questioning.
  • Discuss in threes and draw 3-5 conclusions.

A few major models of change

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Beckhard & Harris: the change formula

C = [ABD] > X

C = Change
A = Level of dissatisfaction with the status quo
B = Desirability of the proposed change or end state
D = Practicality of the change (minimal risk and disruption)

X = ‘Cost’ of changing

This formula is sometimes written: (A x B x D) > X , indicating that if one factor is zero, there will be no change, unless the cost of changing is zero

Bridges: managing the transition

ENDING NEUTRAL ZONE BEGINNING

William Bridges Model of Transition

“It’s not the changes that do you in, it’s the transitions. They aren’t the same thing. Change is situational…Transition, on the other hand, is psychological…Getting people through the transition is essential if the change is actually to work as planned” (Bridges, p. 3). Managing Transitions (2009).

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ENDING – before you can begin something new, you have to end what used to be

NEUTRAL ZONE – in the neutral zone, people feel disoriented, motivation falls and anxiety rises. It can also be a creative time as old boundaries and habits start to dissolve.

NEW BEGINNING – beginnings need to be carefully nurtured. They can’t be planned and predicted, but they can be encouraged, supported and reinforced. Four elements help people to make a new beginning:

  • the purpose behind the change
  • a picture of how this new organization will look and feel
  • a step by step plan to get there
  • a part to play in the outcome.

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William Bridges Model of Transition

Fear

Anxiety

Sense of loss

Hard to let go

Searching

Confusion

Highs/lows

Renewal

New identity

New energy

New purpose

Optimism

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Bridges: managing the transition

  • ENDING – before you can begin something new, you have to end what used to be
  • NEUTRAL ZONE – in the neutral zone, people feel disoriented, motivation falls and anxiety rises. It can also be a creative time as old boundaries and habits start to dissolve.
  • NEW BEGINNING – beginnings need to be carefully nurtured. They can’t be planned and predicted, but they can be encouraged, supported and reinforced. Four elements help people to make a new beginning:

the purpose behind the change

a picture of how this new organization will look and feel

a step by step plan to get there

a part to play in the outcome.

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Reactions of a conflicted change brain

fear, anger, fight

flight, freeze,

stress, illness

©Eli Sopow PhD

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When our memory…our CONTEXT keeper…says the sudden difference…the change…is a threat…we instantly react with a series of actions.

Fear is not having power and not knowing.

Some people will fight back…some will quit (physically or emotionally leave), or freeze.

It all builds stress in our systems….creates toxic workplaces…and often leads to physical illness and sick or stress leave.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=U5802FBaMSI

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ADKAR States of Change

Laloux: self-management structures and processes, or Evolutionary-Teal cultures Agile

  • Central staff functions are performed by the teams themselves or by voluntary task forces
  • Projects are run in a radically simplified manner – informally and organically, with people working on a number of projects in parallel.
  • Decision-making is done using the ‘advice process’. Any person can raise an issue and make any decision, but before doing so must seek advice from all affected parties and people with expertise on the matter.
  • There are no authorization limits for spending money and no procurement departments. Anyone can spend any amount provided the advice process above is respected.
  • Information on everything, including finances, salaries and performance levels, is available to everyone, not just the ‘most important’ people, usually via the company intranet.
  • Roles are fluid and dynamic, and job titles don’t exist. When a role emerges within a team, the appointment process is organic, with the right person usually becoming apparent, who the team members then entrust with the role.
  • Compensation is handled very differently from traditional hierarchies. Salaries are set by the individual based on their own research/reflection, and calibrated by team peers to create a base pay.

The McKinsey 7-S model involves seven interdependent factors which are categorized as either “hard” or “soft” elements:

https://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/strategy-and-corporate-finance/our-insights/enduring-ideas-the-7-s-framework

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Hard ElementsSoft Elements
Strategy
Structure
Systems
Shared Values
Skills
Style
Staff

“Hard” elements are easier to define or identify and management can directly influence them: these are strategy statements; organization charts and reporting lines; and formal processes and IT systems.”

“Soft” elements, on the other hand, can be more difficult to describe, and are less tangible and more influenced by culture. However, these soft elements are as important as the hard elements if the organization is going to be successful.”

The McKinsey 7-S model

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The McKinsey 7-S model

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The Nadler-Tushman Congruence Model

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REFLECT & DISCUSS

  • Think of an organizational change process that you have experienced or are reasonably close to. How successful was this change in your view, and the views of people involved? Use each framework to reflect on the change process and draw conclusions about what was done well in terms of change leadership, and what might have been more effective. Consider both short term and long term success.

  • Which of the frameworks for organizational change might be most helpful for considering the following changes (select one or two only). Explain why you chose as you did, and what change leadership steps are indicated as you think things through from the relevant CEO or COO’s perspective.

Combining two well-respected universities to form one excellent seat of learning.

Improving the performance of a modern manufacturing business on multiple sites that is underperforming in certain areas.

Rapid growth of a new organization, to be staffed by 75 per cent Generation Y, that provides sustainability advice to schools around the UK and Europe.

Dealing with new legislation that severely impacts how a financial services business operates and carries out its core processes; it is currently run via traditional and highly political hierarchies.

REFLECT & DISCUSS continued

Discussion & Breakout Thinking

1. Which of the change models do you like the best and why?

2. Name three areas that all the models seem to have in common.

3. Which of the models do you think have the greatest chance of success—why?

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