Case Study examining the case of Netflix and Blockbuster. You will examine the reasons why Netflix thrived, and blockbuster declined during a period of tec

examining the case of Netflix and Blockbuster. You will examine the reasons why Netflix thrived, and blockbuster declined during a period of technological transition. It is crucial to utilize course material to show your understanding of the change processes needed for successful transitions.

Praise for the previous editions of Making Sense of Change Management

‘I commend it highly. It has a good coverage of relevant theoretical work while at
the same time giving plenty of practical examples. It is written in an accessible
style that engages the reader and it is full of useful ideas without being overly
prescriptive or formulaic.’
Philip Sadler, author of a number of acclaimed business titles and
former chief executive of Ashridge Business School

‘I really enjoyed this book. I like the straightforward approach, the inclusion of the
author’s opinion and the insight provided by the case studies. This book will be
very useful for those business managers in my organization who need to prepare
themselves for tackling major organizational change.’
Andy Houghton, Managing Director of YSC and former Head of
Organization Development, Retail Direct, Royal Bank of Scotland
Group

‘There has long been a need for a readable, practical but theoretically under-pinned
book on Change which recognized a multiplicity of perspectives. By combining
the behavioural, humanistic, organizational and cognitive perspectives and by
helping the reader make sense of what each perspective brings to understanding
Change, this book should help students and practitioners. By linking in work on
personality tests such as MBTI™ the book breaks new ground from a practitioner
point of view not least because these tests are widely used in practice. I thoroughly
recommend it.’
Professor Colin Carnall, Chief Executive, Executive Education, Cass
Business School

‘If you’re interested in successfully managing and leading change, then read this
book! It not only covers change from both the individual and organizational
perspective, but also increases the number of options available to you.’
Judi Billing, former Director of IDeA Leadership Academy, Improvement
and Development Agency

‘Change is a huge thing wherever you work. The key is to make change happen,
and make it happen well – with everyone on side, and everyone happy. This book

i

provides an extremely stimulating and accessible guide to doing just that. There
are a few people at the Beeb who could do with this. I’ll definitely be placing copies
on a couple of desks at White City.’
Nicky Campbell, Presenter Radio Five Live and BBC1’s The Big
Questions

‘This book is a great resource for managers thrown into the midst of change, who
need to gain understanding of what happens when you try to make significant
changes in a business, and how best to manage people through it. The authors
have tackled a complex topic in a lively and engaging way, leading readers
through the maze of theory available and offering just the right amount of practical
advice.’
Andy Newall, Group HR Director United Biscuits and former
Organizational Effectiveness Director, Allied Domecq plc

‘This impressive book on change is an essential read for any professional manager
who is serious about getting to grips with the important issues of making change
happen.’
Dr Jeff Watkins, former MSc Course Director, Management Research
Centre, University of Bristol

‘This practical handbook, combining contemporary management theory with very
practical suggestions, is an indispensable tool for any manager involved in change
processes. And aren’t we all …’
Adriaan Vollebergh, Director, Tata Steel Europe

‘This is a book which lives up to its title. By combining a guide to the ideas of
key thinkers on change and useful tips for making change happen, it really does
provide a toolkit to help us to make sense of change. It is useful to see a focus on
the individual, team and organizational levels, and in particular, on the role of the
leader in the change process. It is written in a way that makes the book interesting
to read both at length as well as to dip into.’
Dr Richard McBain, Head of Postgraduate Post Experience Programmes,
Henley Business School

ii

MAKING
SENSE OF
CHANGE

MANAGEMENT

iii

iv

THIS PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

MAKING
SENSE OF
CHANGE

MANAGEMENT
A complete guide to the models, tools

and techniques of organizational change

3rd edition

Esther Cameron and Mike Green

THIS PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

v

Publisher ’s note
Every possible effort has been made to ensure that the information contained in this book is accurate
at the time of going to press, and the publishers and authors cannot accept responsibility for any
errors or omissions, however caused. No responsibility for loss or damage occasioned to any person
acting, or refraining from action, as a result of the material in this publication can be accepted by
the editor, the publisher or either of the authors.

First published in Great Britain and the United States in 2004 by Kogan Page Limited
Second edition 2009
Third edition 2012

Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as
permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, this publication may only be repro-
duced, stored or transmitted, in any form or by any means, with the prior permission in writing of
the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction in accordance with the terms and licences
issued by the CLA. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside these terms should be sent to the
publishers at the undermentioned addresses:

120 Pentonville Road
London N1 9JN
United Kingdom
www.koganpage.com

1518 Walnut Street, Suite 1100
Philadelphia PA 19102
USA

4737/23 Ansari Road
Daryaganj
New Delhi 110002
India

© Esther Cameron and Mike Green, 2004, 2009, 2012

The right of Esther Cameron and Mike Green to be identified as the authors of this work has been
asserted by them in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

ISBN 978 0 7494 6435 6
E-ISBN 978 0 7494 6436 3

British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data

A CIP record for this book is available from the British Library.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Cameron, Esther.
Making sense of change management : a complete guide to the models, tools, and techniques of
organizational change / Esther Cameron, Mike Green. – 3rd ed.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-0-7494-6435-6 – ISBN 978-0-7494-6436-3 1. Organizational change–Management.
2. Teams in the workplace–Management. 3. Reengineering (Management)
4. Information technology–Management. I. Green, Mike, 1959- II. Title.
HD58.8.C317 2012
658.4’06–dc23
2011048827

Typeset by Graphicraft Ltd, Hong Kong
Printed and bound in India by Replika Press Pvt Ltd

vi

Contents

Acknowledgements xi

Introduction 1
Who this book is aimed at 2; The basic content of the book 3;
Why explore different approaches to change? 4; Overview of
structure 6; Message to readers 9

PART ONE: THE UNDERPINNING THEORY 11

1 Individual change 14
Introduction 14; Learning and the process of change 16; The
behavioural approach to change 22; The cognitive approach
to change 28; The psychodynamic approach to change 36;
The humanistic psychology approach to change 45;
Personality and change 56; Managing change in self and
others 58; Summary and conclusions 66

Contents
Contents vii
Acknowledgements xi
WHO THIS BOOK IS AIMED AT 2
THE BASIC CONTENT OF THE BOOK 3
WHY EXPLORE DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO CHANGE? 4
OVERVIEW OF STRUCTURE 6
MESSAGE TO READERS 9
The underpinning theory 11
INTRODUCTION 14
LEARNING AND THE PROCESS OF CHANGE 16
THE BEHAVIOURAL APPROACH TO CHANGE 22
THE COGNITIVE APPROACH TO CHANGE 28
THE PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH TO CHANGE 36
T H E H U M A N I S T I C P S Y C H O L O G Y A P P R O A C H
TO CHANGE 45
PERSONALITY AND CHANGE 56
MANAGING CHANGE IN SELF AND OTHERS 58
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 66
Team change 69
INTRODUCTION 69
WHAT IS A GROUP AND WHEN IS IT A TEAM? 70
WHY WE NEED TEAMS 72
THE TYPES OF ORGANIZATIONAL TEAMS 73
HOW TO IMPROVE TEAM EFFECTIVENESS 82
WHAT TEAM CHANGE LOOKS LIKE 85
THE LEADERSHIP ISSUES IN TEAM CHANGE 91
HOW INDIVIDUALS AFFECT TEAM DYNAMICS 95
HOW WELL TEAMS INITIATE AND ADAPT TO ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE 101
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 105
Organizational change 107
HOW ORGANIZATIONS REALLY WORK 108
M O D E L S O F A N D A P P R O A C H E S T O
ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE 119
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 147
Leading change 151
INTRODUCTION 151
VISIONARY LEADERSHIP 156
ROLES THAT LEADERS PLAY 166
LEADERSHIP STYLES, QUALITIES AND SKILLS 174
D I F F E R E N T L E A D E R S H I P F O R D I F F E R E N T
PHASES OF CHANGE 184
T H E I M P O R T A N C E O F S E L F – K N O W L E D G E A N D
INNER RESOURCES 192
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 197
The change agent 201
INTRODUCTION 201
MODELS OF CHANGE AGENCY 202
THE CONSULTING PROCESS 205
CHANGE AGENT TOOLS AND FRAMEWORKS 215
COMPETENCIES OF THE CHANGE AGENT 226
DEEPER ASPECTS OF BEING A CHANGE AGENT 233
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 252
The applications 255
STRATEGIC CHANGE PROCESS 256
OVERVIEW OF STRUCTURE 258
Restructuring 261
REASONS FOR RESTRUCTURING 263
THE RESTRUCTURING PROCESS 264
R E S T R U C T U R I N G F R O M A N I N D I V I D U A L
C H A N G E P E R S P E C T I V E :
THE SPECIAL CASE OF REDUNDANCY 285
E N A B L I N G T E A M S T O A D D R E S S
ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE 290
CONCLUSION 296
Mergers and acquisitions 297
T H E P U R P O S E O F M E R G E R
AND ACQUISITION ACTIVITY 298
LESSONS FROM RESEARCH INTO SUCCESSFUL AND UNSUCCESSFUL MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS 304
A P P L Y I N G T H E C H A N G E T H E O R Y :
GUIDELINES FOR LEADERS 319
SUMMARY 332
G U I D E L I N E S F O R A C H I E V I N G S U C C E S S F U L
CULTURAL CHANGE 338
CASE STUDY ONE: ALIGNING THE ORGANIZATION 341
CASE STUDY TWO: REBRANDING THE ORGANIZATION 348
CASE STUDY THREE: CREATING AN EMPLOYER BRAND 356
STRATEGY AND IT 365
THE ROLE OF IT MANAGEMENT 369
THE NEED FOR IT CHANGE MANAGERS 373
ACHIEVING PROCESS CHANGE 378
CHANGING THE INFORMATION CULTURE 385
NEW RULES FOR A NEW AGE 388
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 389
Emerging inquiries 391
Complex change 393
INTRODUCTION 393
WHEN IS CHANGE COMPLEX? 394
U N D E R S T A N D I N G H O W C O M P L E X I T Y S C I E N C E
APPLIES TO ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE 395
TOOLS THAT SUPPORT COMPLEX CHANGE 405
THE ROLE OF LEADERS IN COMPLEX CHANGE 411
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 414
INTRODUCTION 416
T H E I M P A C T O F U N C E R T A I N T Y O N
OUR WORKING LIVES 418
DECISION MAKING IN AN UNCERTAIN WORLD 430
S K I L L S A N D T O O L S T O S U P P O R T L E A D I N G
CHANGE THROUGH UNCERTAINTY 442
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 452
Conclusion 455
H O W T O G E T I N T O U C H W I T H T H E A U T H O R S
OF THIS BOOK 456
References 457
Index 471

vii

Contents ___________________________________________________________________

viii

2 Team change 69
Introduction 69; What is a group and when is it a team? 70;
Why we need teams 72; The types of organizational
teams 73; How to improve team effectiveness 82; What team
change looks like 85; The leadership issues in team
change 91; How individuals affect team dynamics 95; How
well teams initiate and adapt to organizational change 101;
Summary and conclusions 105

3 Organizational change 107
How organizations really work 108; Models of and
approaches to organizational change 119; Summary
and conclusions 147

4 Leading change 151
Introduction 151; Visionary leadership 156; Roles that
leaders play 166; Leadership styles, qualities and skills 174;
Different leadership for different phases of change 184;
The importance of self-knowledge and inner resources 192;
Summary and conclusions 197

5 The change agent 201
Introduction 201; Models of change agency 202;
The consulting process 205; Change agent tools and
frameworks 215; Competencies of the change agent 226;
Deeper aspects of being a change agent 233; Summary and
conclusions 252

PART TWO: THE APPLICATIONS 255

Strategic change process 256; Overview of structure 258

6 Restructuring 261
Reasons for restructuring 263; The restructuring process 264;
Restructuring from an individual change perspective: the
special case of redundancy 285; Enabling teams to address
organizational change 290; Conclusion 296

___________________________________________________________________ Contents

ix

7 Mergers and acquisitions 297
The purpose of merger and acquisition activity 298; Lessons
from research into successful and unsuccessful mergers and
acquisitions 304; Applying the change theory: guidelines for
leaders 319; Summary 332

8 Cultural change 334
Guidelines for achieving successful cultural change 338;
Case study one: aligning the organization 341; Case study
two: rebranding the organization 348; Case study three:
creating an employer brand 356

9 IT-based process change 362
Strategy and IT 365; The role of IT management 369;
The need for IT change managers 373; Achieving process
change 378; Changing the information culture 385;
New rules for a new age 388; Summary and conclusions 389

PART THREE: EMERGING INQUIRIES 391

10 Complex change 393
Introduction 393; When is change complex? 394;
Understanding how complexity science applies to
organizational change 395; Tools that support complex
change 405; The role of leaders in complex change 411;
Summary and conclusions 414

11 Leading change in uncertain times 416
Introduction 416; The impact of uncertainty on our working
lives 418; New organizational forms and ways of doing
business 424; New careers and the need for ‘managing
oneself’ 428; Decision making in an uncertain world 430;
Skills and tools to support leading change through
uncertainty 442; Summary and conclusions 452

Contents ___________________________________________________________________

x

Conclusion 455
How to get in touch with the authors of this book 456

References 457
Index 471

Acknowledgements

We want to start by acknowledging the many people in organizations
with whom we have worked over the years. You are all in here in some
shape or form! We have worked with many generous, courageous and
inspiring managers of change who we thank for the privilege of working
alongside them to make real change happen. Without these experiences
the book would be a dry catalogue of theory, devoid of life and character.

Then of course there are our colleagues who challenge and support us
every day as we reflect on our work and make decisions about what to do
next. Particular thanks go from Mike to Andy Holder, Mhairi Cameron,
Philip Darley and Tim Hockridge, who probably do not know how much
they are appreciated, and to Mike’s MBA and Executive Education Pro-
gramme Members at Henley Business School for a never-ending supply
of ideas and challenges. Esther wants to specially acknowledge Nick
Mayhew for his encouragement, wisdom and sensitive feedback, particu-
larly in relation to Chapter 11, Anne-Marie Saunders and Alex Clark for
their humour, friendship and generosity in sharing their expertise; so many
of their insights are embedded in this book. Also, thanks go to Esther’s
learning set who really boosted the leadership chapter in particular.

xi

xii

Acknowledgements __________________________________________________________

Thanks too to Bill Critchley for his ideas on linking metaphor and change,
which form the bedrock of the organizational change chapter.

Really special thanks go to Ailsa Cameron for her wonderful pictures,
which soften the pages so beautifully.

We also want to thank from the bottom of our hearts the hard-working
reviewers who squeezed the time out of their busy agendas to read
draft versions of these chapters. Special thanks go to Louise Overy,
Steve Summers, Duncan Cameron, Mervyn Smallwood, Peter Hyson,
Richard Lacey and Richard Smith for their timely and thoughtful
suggestions throughout the iterative process of writing the book.

Our families have helped too by being very patient and supportive. So
love and thanks from Mike to his children Lewin, Oliver and Brigit, who
make it all worthwhile. Love and thanks too from Esther to Duncan,
Ailsa, Ewan and Katka amongst many others who have walked dogs and
cleaned-up when I’ve had my head in my PC.

We also want to thank each other. We have learnt a lot from this rich
and sometimes rocky process of writing a book together. We do not
always see things the same way, and we do not work from an identical
set of assumptions about change, so the book is the culmination of much
healthy airing of views. Let’s hope we are still writing, talking and enjoy-
ing each other’s company many years from now.

Note: The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator™ and MBTI™ are registered trade-
marks of Consulting Psychologists Press. Anyone interested in knowing
more about Myers-Briggs should contact Consulting Psychologists Press
in the United States (800-624-1765) and OPP in the UK (08708 728 727).

Introduction

I balance on a wishing well that all men call the world.
We are so small between the stars, so large against the sky,
and lost amongst the subway crowd I try and catch your eye.

L Cohen

This book is about making sense of
change management. The world we live
in continues to change at an intense
rate. Not a day goes by, it seems, with-
out another important discovery or
boundary-pushing invention in the
scientific fields. The economics of global-
ization seems to dominate much of our
political and corporate thinking, while
the shadow side of globalization – re-
fugees, exploitation, terrorism and the like
– develops at an equally alarming pace.

1

Making sense of change management ___________________________________________

2

The rate of change and discovery outpaces our individual ability to
keep up with it. The organizations we work in or rely on to meet our
needs and wants are also changing dramatically, in terms of their strate-
gies, their structures, their systems, their boundaries and of course their
expectations of their staff and their managers.

WHO THIS BOOK IS AIMED AT

Making Sense of Change Management is aimed at anyone who wants to
begin to understand why change happens, how change happens and
what needs to be done to make change a more welcoming concept. In
particular we hope that leaders and managers in organizations might
appreciate a book that does not give them the one and only panacea, but
offers insights into different frameworks and ways of approaching
change at an individual, team and organizational level.

We are mindful of the tremendous pressures and priorities of prac-
tising managers – in both the private and the public sector – and Making
Sense of Change Management is our attempt at making their lives that little
bit easier. It is also our attempt at convincing them that addressing the
issues that cause change to be so poorly managed in organizations will
lead not only to more satisfying experiences for them, but to more fulfill-
ing lives for their staff.

Framework: an essential supporting structure;
Model: a simplified description of a system;
Tool: a thing used in an occupation or pursuit;
Technique: a means of achieving one’s purpose.

Concise Oxford Dictionary

Students of learning – be they MBA or MSc programme members, or
individuals who just want to do things better – will hopefully find some
models, tools and techniques that bridge the gap between the purely
academic and the more pragmatic aspects of management theory and

________________________________________________________________ Introduction

3

practice. The intention is to help them to make sense of the changes that
they will undergo, initiate and implement.

THE BASIC CONTENT OF THE BOOK

We focus our attention on individual, team and organizational change
with good reason. Many readers will be grappling with large-scale change
at some point, which might be departmental, divisional or whole organ-
izational change. Whatever the level or degree of organizational change,
the people on the receiving end are individual human beings. It is they
who will ultimately cause the change to be a success or a failure. Without
looking at the implications of change on individuals we can never really
hope to manage large-scale change effectively.

In addition, one of the themes of organizational life over recent years
has been the ascendancy of the team. Much of today’s work is organized
through teams and requires team collaboration and teamworking for it to
succeed. Very little has been written about the role of teams in organiza-
tional change, and we have attempted to offer some fresh ideas mixed
with some familiar ones.

A thread running through the book is the crucial role of leadership. If
management is all about delivering on current needs, then leadership is
all about inventing the future. There is a specific chapter on leadership,
but you will find the importance of effective leadership arising throughout.

In some respects the chapters on individual, team and organizational
change, together with the chapter on leadership of change, are freestand-
ing and self-contained. However, we have also included application
chapters where we have chosen a number of types of change, some of
which, no doubt, will be familiar to you. These chapters aim to provide
guidelines, case studies and learning points for those facing specific
organizational challenges. Here the individual, team and organizational
aspects of the changes are integrated into a coherent whole.

In addition to the application chapter on managing complex change
that we added for the second edition, we have added two new chapters
for the third edition – one on the role and nature of the change agent and
another on leading change in uncertain times.

Making sense of change management ___________________________________________

4

WHY EXPLORE DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO CHANGE?

Managers in today’s organizations face some bewildering challenges.
Paul Evans (2000) says that 21st century leadership of change issues is not
simple; he sees modern leadership as a balancing act. He draws our atten-
tion to the need for leaders to accept the challenge of navigating between
opposites. Leaders have to balance a track record of success with the
ability to admit mistakes and meet failure well. They also have to balance
short-term and long-term goals, be both visionary and pragmatic, pay
attention to global and local issues and encourage individual account-
ability at the same time as enabling team work.

It is useful to note that while some pundits encourage leaders to lead
rather than manage, Paul Evans is emphasizing the need for leaders to
pay attention to both management and leadership. See the box for a list
of paradoxes that managers at Lego are asked to manage.

THE 11 PARADOXES OF LEADERSHIP THAT HANG
ON THE WALL OF EVERY LEGO MANAGER

• To be able to build a close relationship with one’s staff, and to keep a
suitable distance.

• To be able to lead, and to hold oneself in the background.

• To trust one’s staff, and to keep an eye on what is happening.

• To be tolerant, and to know how you want things to function.

• To keep the goals of one’s department in mind, and at the same time
to be loyal to the whole firm.

• To do a good job of planning your own time, and to be flexible with your
schedule.

• To freely express your view, and to be diplomatic.

• To be a visionary, and to keep one’s feet on the ground.

• To try to win consensus, and to be able to cut through.

• To be dynamic, and to be reflective.

• To be sure of yourself, and to be humble.
Source: Evans (2000)

________________________________________________________________ Introduction

5

We believe that anyone interested in the successful management of
change needs to develop the ability to handle such paradoxes. Throughout
this book we offer a range of ideas and views, some of which are contra-
dictory. We would urge you to try to create a space within yourself for
considering a variety of perspectives. Allow your own ideas and insights
to emerge, rather than looking for ideas that you agree with, and discard-
ing those you do not care for. It is highly probable that there is some merit
in everything you read in this book!

With so many choices and so many dynamic tensions in leadership,
how does a manager learn to navigate his or her way through the maze?
We have developed a straightforward model of leadership that acts as a
strong reminder to managers that they need to balance three key dimen-
sions; see Figure 0.1.

Figure 0.1 Three dimensions of leadership
Source: developed by Mike Green, Andy Holder and Mhairi Cameron

Making sense of change management ___________________________________________

6

Managers usually learn to focus on outcomes and tangible results very
early on in their careers. This book is a reminder that although outcomes
are extremely important, the leader must also pay attention to underlying
emotions, and to the world of power and influence, in order to sustain
change and achieve continued success in the long term. Leaders of
change need to balance their efforts across all three dimensions of an
organizational change:

• outcomes: developing and delivering clear outcomes;

• interests: mobilizing influence, authority and power;

• emotions: enabling people and culture to adapt.

Leaders are at the centre of all three. They shape, direct and juggle them.
One dimension may seem central at any time: for example, developing a
strategy. However, leadership is about ensuring that the other dimensions
are also kept in view. The three balls must always be juggled successfully.

In our experience, if you as leader or manager of change are unaware
of what is happening (or not happening) in each of the three dimensions,
you will have ‘taken your eye off the ball’. Your chances of progressing in
an effective way are diminished.

The early chapters of this book give the reader some underpinning
theory and examples to illustrate how people initiate change and react
to change at an individual level, when in teams, or when viewed as part
of a whole organization. This theory will help managers to understand
what is going on, how to deal with it and how to lead it with the help
of others. The later chapters take real change situations and give specific
tips and guidelines on how to tackle these successfully from a leadership
point of view.

OVERVIEW OF STRUCTURE

We have structured the book principally in three parts.
Part One, ‘The underpinning theory’, comprises five chapters and aims

to set out a wide range of ideas and approaches to managing change.

________________________________________________________________ Introduction

7

Chapter 1 draws together the key theories of how individuals go through
change. Chapter 2 compares different types of team, and examines the
process of team development and also the way in which different types
of team contribute to the organizational change process. Chapter 3 looks
at a wide range of approaches to organizational change, using organiza-
tional metaphor to show how these are interconnected and related.
Chapter 4 examines leadership of change, the role of visionary leadership,
the roles that leaders play in the change process and the competencies
that a leader needs to become a successful leader of change. Chapter 5
looks at the critical role and nature of the agent of change, both from a
competency perspective and also from the use of the self as an instrument
for change.

Table 0.1 Where to read about individual, team,
organizational change and leading change

In
tr

od
u

ct
io

n

C
h

ap
te

r
1

C
h

ap
te

r
2

C
h

ap
te

r
3

C
h

ap
te

r
4

C
h

ap
te

r
5

In
tr

od
u

ct
io

n
t

o
P

ar
t

T
w

o

C
h

ap
te

r
6

C
h

ap
te

r
7

C
h

ap
te

r
8

C
h

ap
te

r
9

In
tr

od
u

ct
io

n
P

ar
t

T
h

re
e

C
h

ap
te

r
10

C
h

ap
te

r
11

Type of change In
d

iv
id

u
al

T
ea

m

O
rg

an
iz

at
io

n
al

L
ea

d
in

g
ch

an
ge

C
h

an
ge

a
ge

n
t

R
es

tr
u

ct
u

ri
n

g

M
&

A

C
u

lt
u

re

IT
p

ro
ce

ss

C
om

p
le

x
ch

an
ge

U
n

ce
rt

ai
n

ty

Individual xxx x x xx x x x x

Team xxx x x xx x x x x

Organizational x x x xxx x x xx xx xx xx xx xx

Leading change x x x x xxx xx xx x x x xx

Making sense of change management ___________________________________________

8

These chapters enable the reader to develop a broader understanding
of the theoretical aspects of individual, team and organizational change,
and to learn more about a variety of perspectives on how best to be a
leader of change. This lays firm foundations for anyone wanting to learn
about new approaches to managing change with a view to becoming
more skilled in this area.

Part Two, ‘The applications’, focuses on specific change scenarios with
a view to giving guidelines, hints and tips to those involved in these
different types of change process. These chapters are illustrated with case
studies and make reference to the models and methods discussed in Part
One. Chapter 6 looks at organizational restructuring, why it goes wrong,
and how to get it right. Chapter 7 tackles mergers and acquisitions by
categorizing the different types of activity and examining the learning
points re

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